Ultimate German History Quiz

You have 1 hour to answer the following 144 questions about German History. The questions are ordered chronologically. Get at least 70% correct and you are a true master of German History!
Quiz by HerrGeografie
Last updated: June 13, 2019
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First submittedJune 12, 2019
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Roughly how long ago did modern humans first settle what is now Germany? Take a guess!
40,000 BCE
~380 BCE
In a sandstone valley at the banks of the Moselle river, the Celts found a place called Treuorum. It is nowadays considered the oldest German city and it's also the hometown of Karl Marx. What is its modern name?
~190 BCE
Migrating Germanic tribes first get into conflict with this empire.
Roman Republic
55 BCE
This general, statesman and author leads the first organized, military effort to cross the Rhine and invade Germania.
Gaius Julius Ceasar
In this famous battle, the Roman military suffers a devastating defeat by the Cherusci-Germanic chieftain Arminius who fooled them by pretending to be their ally.
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Parts of modern-day Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, France and the Netherlands are officially made into two Roman provinces with these names.
Germania Inferior, Germania Superior
In his book titled "Germania", this famous historian writes extensively about the culture, politics and society of the Germanic tribes outside of Roman-controlled territory.
Publius Cornelius Tacitus
Along with the Lombards, Franks, Saxons, Burgundians and Ostrogoths, these two famous tribes migrate south beyond the limes and eventually lead to the destruction of the West Roman Empire.
Visigoths and Vandals
Germanic chieftain Clovis I. has conquered all of Gaul and is declared King of the...?
These famous "magic" texts are among the very first written in Old High German.
Merseburg Incantations
In the war against this pagan Germanic tribe, the tribe is subjugated, christianized and their sacred pillar "Irminsul" near the city of Paderborn is destroyed.
The Saxons
Peter of Pisa and Alcuin of York are called to the Frankish court where they initiate the "Carolingian renaissance". What was this medieval movement of monastic learning and studying called?
This talented warrior and statesman is crowned by Pope Leo III. "King of the Romans" and nowadays considered the forefather of Germany.
This man is crowned the very first Kaiser of the Holy Roman Empire.
Otto I.
Frederick II. and other German emperors are among the leading figures in these campaigns that last almost 300 years and seek to conquer and christianize the Middle East (especially Jerusalem).
Sep. 23, 1122
This famous agreement between Pope Callixtus II. and Kaiser Henry V. terminated the Investiture Controversy and regulated in what way German bishops and abbots will be elected.
Concordat of Worms
This abbess, polymath, writer, philosopher and healer considered the most influential woman of Germany's Middle Ages dies at age 81.
Hildegard of Bingen
This epic poem, which is considered one of the most important pieces of all German literature and whose oral roots reach back to the 5th century is written down for the first time in Middle High German.
This man considered the most important poet and Minnesänger of Germany's Middle Ages dies at age 60.
Walther von der Vogelweide
The ancestors of this modern-day country form an alliance against the Habsburgs and make the first step towards eventual independence.
This horrific disease sweaps across Europe and kills over a third of the total German population.
The Plague
Johannes Gutenberg introduces this revolutionary technology originally invented in Korea and further developed in China to Europe.
The Printing Press
This renaissance painter, printmaker and theorist accomplishes great fame thanks to his beautiful and intricate woodcuts.
Albrecht Dürer
In Speyer, a Catholic clergyman named Heinrich Kramer publishes an infamous treatise that claims the existence of witches. It endorses their extermination and gives instructions on how to spot and kill them. What was this treatise called?
Malleus Maleficarum
April 23, 1516
Thanks to William IV. of Bavaria and his "Reinheitsgebot" ("Purity Commandment"), Germany becomes the very first place in Europe where who/what must be "pure" going forward?
Oct. 31, 1517
Martin Luther sets off the reformation in Europe by posting this document, in which he criticizes the sale of indulgences by the Catholic Church, at the door of the All Saint's church in Wittenberg.
Ninety-Five Theses
This radical theologian of the reformation and vehement opponent to feudalism dies in battle as the leader of Germany's peasant war.
Thomas Müntzer
After the siege of this city has failed, the Ottoman Empire is forced to retreat.
Martin Luther is the first person ever to translate this book into German.
The Bible
After losing his battle against the rise of Protestantism, Kaiser Charles V. is forced to sign this treaty, giving German dukes the authority to decide for themselves whether they want their territories to be Catholic or Protestant.
Peace of Augsburg
This astronomer and mathematician discovers that planetary orbits are in fact elliptical rather than round as people previously thought. NASA named a telescope after him.
Johannes Kepler
Albrecht von Wallenstein becomes one of the most important and influential figues of German History during this conflict.
Thirty-Year War
During the 17th century and especially during these 5 years, this Bavarian city becomes a sad example for the atrocity of the witch trials sweeping across Germany.
In this city, the Catholic alliance commits a giant massacre and murders some 20,000 civilians, many of whom are women and children.
Oct. 24, 1648
The conflict mentioned above was concluded with this pan-European peace agreement.
Treaty of Westphalia
This German intellectual publishes his work on calculus.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Enlightenment-philosopher Immanuel Kant argues that the true "objective" nature of reality is unknowable because we are all imprisoned in our sensory, subjective realities. Kant's most famous concept however is...?
The Categorical Imperative
This German becomes famous not only as a prolific writer but also as a fighter for tolerance and religious moderation over zeal.
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
During the long reign of this king, Prussia wins its competition against Austria, wins the Seven-Year-War and becomes a European superpower. It also becomes a center for the arts, philosophy and natural sciences.
Frederick the Great
Musical pieces such as "Für Elise", "Eine kleine Nachtmusik" or "Rondo alla turca" are composed by this prodigy.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
This writer, poet and close friend to Johann Wolfang von Goethe became famous with literary works such as "Wilhelm Tell", "The Robbers", "Mary Stuart" or "Intrigue and Love".
Friedrich Schiller
This brilliant naturalist, explorer, polymath and philosopher travels around the globe to study our planet's flora and fauna. He is the first person ever to describe anthropogenic climate change and he is also credited with discovering plate tectonics.
Alexander von Humboldt
Ludwig van Beethoven composes this world-famous piece of music which later becomes the official anthem of the European Union.
Ode to Joy
This philosopher and historian is credited with laying the foundations for Karl Marx' works. Among other things, he came up with the idea that progress is never linear but moves like a pendulum from one extreme to another.
Georg Friedrich Hegel
This mathematician made important contributions to many fields of mathematics, including statistics, algebra and calculus. He is most famous for a type of statistical "distribution" named after him.
Carl Friedrich Gauss
Prussia establishes an university admission exam that still exists in Germany today. What is it called?
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe publishes this possibly most famous work of all German literature.
Oct. 14, 1806
On one single day, Napoléon Bonaparte defeats the Prussian kingdom in two decisive battles in these two cities.
Jena and Auerstedt
After his victory over Prussia, Napoléon steals a part of this famous landmark and takes it back to France.
The Brandenburg Gate
The world-famous Brothers Grimm publish their first collection of what?
Fairy Tales
Baron Karl von Drais invents the first verifiable prototype of something almost everyone today uses. What is it?
The bicycle
Oct. 18, 1817
Several hundred liberal university students organize this festival at the former refuge of Martin Luther to protest reactionary politics and authoritarianism.
Wartburg Festival
Sep. 20, 1819
In these decrees, the states of the German confederation pledge to one another to dissolve liberal student protests, censor liberalist publications and make it illegal for universities to hire liberal-minded professors.
Carlsbad Decrees
Wilhelm Busch makes a lasting impact on German culture as a humorist, satirist and writer. He loves to make fun of bigotry, philistinism and religious morality. His best-known work tells the adventures of two naughty boys and is called...?
Max and Moritz
Educator Friedrich Fröbel believes that little children are very curious about the world and that we should nourish them "like plants in a garden". Based on this belief, he invents and founds the first what?
Kindergarten ("Children garden")
This German novelist writes realistically about the American Wild West, the Middle East and South America - although he never actually manages to visit any of these place. He is best-known for his characters Winnetou and Old Shatterhand.
Karl May
This physician, microbiologist and Nobel Prize laureate is responsible for the discovery of the tuberculosis and the cholera bacteria, as well as many other important breakthroughs in medicine.
Robert Koch
This philosopher entered the annals of German History as one of the harshest critics of theism. His words "God is dead" became world-famous. He lost his mind in the last years of his life due to a syphillis infection.
Friedrich Nietzsche
Publisher, poet and politician Robert Blum supports democracy and opposes antisemitism and ethnocentrism. He is a leading figure in this event.
March Revolution
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish this work. It is considered one of the most influential treatises in the world.
The Communist Manifesto
For the very first time, remains of this extinct human species are found in a valley near Düsseldorf, giving archeologists a completely new understanding of prehistory.
This theoretical physicist and Nobel Prize loreate is the father of quantum theory. A famous research institute is named after him, as well as a "length", which is believed to be the smallest possible unit in the universe.
Max Planck
In his quest to bring the different parts of the German Empire together under one Kaiser, Chancellor Bismarck struggles to convince Ludwig II., duke of Bavaria. He eventually succeeds by giving Ludwig in return for his loyalty a large sum of money to build what famous "fairy-tale" castle located in Füssen?
Prussia gets attacked by this country but gives its opponent a decisive blow thanks to well-equipped Prussian troops and superior training.
Otto von Bismarck manages to do what?
Unify Germany
This influential female marxist and pacifist fights for democracy, peace, women's suffrage and a communist revolution. She criticizes authoritarian leaders, including Lenin.
Rosa Luxemburg
This German author becomes well-known thanks to novels such as "The Magic Mountain" and "Buddenbrooks".
Thomas Mann
This political party is founded in Germany.
Social Democratic Party (SPD)
This novelist, poet and Nobel Prize laureate is chiefly interested in topics such as self-knowledge, authenticity and spirituality. His best-known works are "Steppenwolf", "Siddhartha" and "The Glass Bead".
Hermann Hesse
Bismarck enacts these antidemocratic laws and tries to enforce them over the next 12 years but with no success.
Anti-Socialist Laws
Thanks to Werner von Siemens, Berlin becomes the first city in the world where people can enjoy an electrical...?
Nov. 15, 1884
An infamous conference in this city is convened to formalize the territorial claims of the various European imperialist powers in Africa.
This sub-saharan African country becomes a German colony.
These two men invent and build independently from one another the first automobiles that run on gasoline-powered combustion engines.
Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler
This year is known in the German Empire as the year of the Three...?
In an effort to loosen political and social tensions, Bismarck founds the first kind of what?
Welfare Insurance
A special type of engine, named after its inventor, is created by this man.
Rudolf Diesel
Physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen makes this break-through discovery.
This famous marxist playwright and poet is best known for works such as "The Threepenny Opera", "The Caucasian Chalk Circle" or "The Good Person of Szechwan".
Bertold Brecht
This theoretical physicist becomes a pioneer of quantum mechanics and is best known for his "uncertainty principle". A TV character has been named after him.
Werner von Heisenberg
Albert Einstein publishes his theory of...?
Special Relativity
A German Field Marshall develops a military plan to invade France over Belgium and the Netherlands in the case of a two-front war. What was this plan called?
Aug. 30, 1914
In the battle of Tannenberg, one of the first major battles of World War I, the German Empire defeats troops from this country decisively.
April 22, 1915
In the battle at Ypres (Belgium), the Germans shock the allied troops by attacking them with something completely new and unexpected. What was it?
Chlorine Gas
July 1915
In a famous battle at this French river, over 60,000 British soldiers lose their lives in an effort to drive out the Germans. In the end, there is more stalemate and no success for either side. What was the battle/river called?
Battle at the Somme
October 1915
In this unspeakably barbaric and traumatizing battle, over 1 million French and German lives are lost. The battlefield landscape was described by veterans to have looked so eerie and surreal that it inspired J.R.R. Tolkien who participated in this battle to write "Lord of the Rings".
Battle at Verdun
The German Empire introduces unrestricted submarine warfare. This policy leads to which country joining the war?
The United States of America
March 1918
This is the last, large-scale German military attempt to turn the war around.
Spring Offensive
Nov. 3, 1918
After being ordered to uselessly sacrifice their lives in a desperate attempt to save Germany's honor, these members of the military revolt in Kiel, triggering the German Revolution of 1918/1919 six days later.
Sailors (Navy)
Nov. 9, 1918
This socialist and publisher proclaims the "Free Socialist Republic".
Karl Liebknecht
Nov. 9, 1918
Under immense pressure from the various protests on the streets, this SPD-politician proclaims the (non-socialist) Republic.
Philipp Scheidemann
December 1918
This man becomes the first Chancellor of the Weimar Republic.
Friedrich Ebert
Jan. 15, 1919
In this marxist uprising, its leaders as well as over 150 protesters are brutally killed by the Freikorps.
June 1919
Germany signs the treaty of Versailles. Believing this humiliation had not been necessary and the war could have still been won if it had not been for the "treasonous" pacifists, Adolf Hitler will later invent a myth called the...?
March 13, 1920
In this putsch, the Freikorps occupies Berlin and unsuccessfully tries to overthrow the Weimar Republic.
Due to the astronomical reparation payments demanded by the Versailles treaty, the Weimar Republic begins to print as much money as they can, leading to what economic phenomenon?
Jan. 11, 1923
France invades and occupies this economically important region of Germany.
The Ruhr
Nov. 8, 1923
In the Beer-Hall-Putsch, Adolf Hitler and 600 members of his SA try to overthrow the democratic government. In what city did the attempted coup take place?
This man becomes Gauleiter for the NSDAP and four years later is promoted by Hitler to become national propaganda minister ("Reichspropagandaminister").
Joseph Goebbels
This novelist, poet, playwright and Nobel Prize laureate serves as a member of the Waffen-SS in World War II in his youth but becomes a staunch progressive in his later life. He is best known for his novel "The Tin Drum".
Günter Grass
Oct. 29, 1929
What foreign event tanks the German economy just when it had begun to recover?
Wall Street Crash
This author of children's stories becomes world-famous with classics such as "The Neverending Story", "Momo" and "Jim Button and Luke the Engine Driver".
Michael Ende
Sociologists such as Herbert Marcuse, Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Walter Benjamin and Erich Fromm develop their "Critical Theory". Under what name is this group generally known as today?
The Frankfurt School
Jan. 30, 1933
After the NSDAP's election victory, Adolf Hitler is appointed what?
Feb. 27, 1933
This tragic event happens and Hitler uses it for political capital.
Reichstag Fire
March 24, 1933
This Act de facto abolishes the separation of powers. It moves all power to Hitler and his cabinet.
Enabling Act
June 30, 1934
During this night, SS paramilitaries kill over 85 threats to Hitler's power, including Ernst Röhm and Georg Strasser.
Night of the Long Knives
March 7, 1936
As a first, open provocation to the allied powers, Hitler orders the Wehrmacht to march into this (formerly demilitarized) German region.
The Rhineland
Dec. 1937 - Jan. 1938
This German businessman and Nazi-Party member saves roughly 200,000 Chinese civilians' lives by establishing a safety zone and protecting them from the horrific massacre and mass-rape by the Japanese army in Nanking.
John Rabe
March 12, 1938
Anschluss: German troops enter this country to "bring it home into the Reich".
Nov. 9, 1938
In this infamous and nationwide pogrom, thousands of Jews are beaten, mugged and murdered. Their shops and homes are plundered.
Sep. 1, 1939
World War II begins. At 5 a.m., German troops enter this country.
Nov. 8, 1939
Years before General Stauffenberg, a German craftsman called Georg Elser comes insanely close to successfully assassinate Adolf Hitler. He does this by building a time bomb and hiding it in what iconic building central to Nazi lore?
The Bürgerbräukeller
This German civil engineer invents and builds the world's first programmable computer and is nowadays considered the inventor of the modern computer.
Konrad Zuse
Jan. 20, 1942
The "final solution", the purposeful extinction of all European Jews, is discussed at this secret conference.
Wannsee Conference
1942 - present
This musician is perhaps the most influential post-war German singer-songwriter.
Reinhard Mey (Frédéric Mey)
This German industrial and member of the Nazi-Party is credited with saving over 1,200 Jewish lives in his factories in Poland.
Oskar Schindler
January 1943
A brave, 21-year old girl named Sophie Scholl is caught distributing anti-Nazi leaflets at the University of Munich with her brother. Together with two friends, they are both executed. What was the group called that Sophie was the head of?
The White Rose
October 1944
This 15-year old Jewish girl who has been hiding from the Nazis for several years is caught and transported to a concentration camp. She dies just 2 months before the end of the war and is known for her touching diary.
Anne Frank
Aug. 1, 1945
After the end of the war, Germany is split by the allies into four "zones" at this conference.
June 5, 1947
This famous plan introduced by the USA intends to support Germany economically and rebuild its industry and infrastructure.
Marshall Plan
To honor and commemorate the courageous revolutionaries of 1848, what colors does the German national flag have since 1949?
Black, Red, and Gold
June 1948 - May 1949
The Soviet Union blocks all cargo shipments to Berlin by road or rail, forcing the US to establish an...?
Sep. 15, 1949
This CDU-politician becomes the first Chancellor of West Germany.
Konrad Adenauer
The rapid post-war economic growth of Germany is known as the...? (German term)
April 18, 1951
West Germany and five other European nations found the "European Coal and Steel Community", which works with a single market and supernational institutions. Today we know it as the...?
European Union
Aug. 13, 1961
Construction begins at the...?
Berlin Wall
June 2, 1967
During the massive student protests against the state visit of the Shah of Iran in West Germany, this unarmed student gets shot and killed by a Berlin police detective.
Benno Ohnesorg
The leader of the progressive student movement narrowly survives an assassination attempt by a right-wing extremist but dies 11 years later at age 39 of a seizure caused by remaining brain damage. What was his name?
Rudi Dutschke
Oct. 28, 1969
In his famous address to the Bundestag in Bonn, Chancellor Willy Brandt (SPD) says: "Let us dare to have more..."?
June 5, 1970
The left-extremist terrorist group Red Army Faction (RAF) is founded. Who are its two most prominent and leading figures?
Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof
This man becomes the head of state of East Germany and remains in this position for 20 years, until East Germany's dissolution in 1990.
Erich Honecker
Sep. 5, 1972
Eight members of this Palestinian terrorist organization sneak into the Olympic Village during the Summer Olympics in Munich, take 11 Israeli athletes hostage and kill them together with a West German police officer.
Black September Organization
Sep. 18, 1973
Both East and West Germany are admitted to what international organization?
The United Nations
Sep. 4, 1989
A series of peaceful protests occur across East Germany, demanding democracy and the right for citizens to travel abroad. What were these demonstrations called?
Monday Demonstrations
On what date did German unification take place?
October 3
March 24, 1999
German troops as part of NATO begin to bomb what country?
Jan. 1, 2002
The Euro is introduced in Germany. What was the German currency before that called?
Deutsche Mark
Nov. 22, 2005
Angela Merkel becomes Chancellor of Germany. What was her job before that?
European Dept Crisis: The relationship between Germany and what other country significantly sours?
March 2014
Angela Merkel heavily criticizes what international act of hostility?
The annexation of the Crimea
Dec. 19, 2016
An islamist terrorist attack is committed in Berlin at a...?
Christmas market
June 30, 2017
The German parliament (Bundestag) legalizes...?
Same-sex marriage
By this date, Germany will completely get rid of...?
Nuclear Energy
Level 68
May 2, 2023
It's spelled Caesar, not ceasar