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Reason for Award
"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter"
David J. Thouless
Duncan M. Haldane
J. Michael Kosterlitz
"for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass"
Arthur B. McDonald
"for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"
"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"
Peter W. Higgs
"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"
David J. Wineland
"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"
Brian P. Schmidt
Adam G. Reiss
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"
American, British, Hong Konger/Chinese
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"
Charles Kuen Kao
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"
Willard S. Boyle
George E. Smith
"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"
"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"
"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"
"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"
John C. Mather
George F. Smoot
"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"
Roy J. Glauber
"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"
John L. Hall
Theodor W. Hansch
"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"
David J. Gross
H. David Politzer
Russian, and American
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"
Alexei A. Abrikosov
Vitaly L. Ginzburg
Anthony J. Leggett
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"
Raymond Davis Jr.
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"
"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"
Eric A. Cornell
Carl E. Wieman
"for basic work on information and communication technology", "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"
Zhores I. Alferov
"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"
Jack S. Kilby
"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"
Gerardus 't Hooft
Martinus J.G. Veltman
"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"
Robert B. Laughlin
Horst L. Stormer
American, Chinese, Taiwanese
Daniel C. Tsui
"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"
William D. Phillips
"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"
David M. Lee
Douglas D. Osheroff
Robert C. Richardson
"for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics", "for the discovery of the tau lepton"
Martin L. Perl
"for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics", "for the detection of the neutrino"
"for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter", "for the development of neutron spectroscopy"
Bertram N. Brockhouse
"for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter", "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"
Clifford G. Shull
"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"
Russell A. Hulse
Joseph H. Taylor Jr.
Polish, Jewish, French
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"
"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"
Jerome I. Friedman
Henry W. Kendall
Richard E. Taylor
"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"
Norman F. Ramsey
"for the development of the ion trap technique"
Hans G. Dehmelt
"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"
Leon M. Lederman
American, West German
"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"
J. Georg Bednorz
K. Alexander Muller
"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"
"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"
"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"
Klaus von Klitzing
"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"
Simon van der Meer
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"
"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"
William Alfred Fowler
"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"
Kenneth G. Wilson
"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"
Arthur Leonard Schawlow
"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"
Kai M. Siegbahn
"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"
James Watson Cronin
Val Lodgson Fitch
"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"
Sheldon Lee Glashow
"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa
"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"
Arno Allan Penzias
Robert Woodrow Wilson
"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"
Philip Warren Anderson
Sir Nevill Francis Mott
John Hasbrouck van Vleck
"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"
Samuel Chao Chung Ting
"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"
Aage Niels Bohr
Ben Roy Mottelson
Leo James Rainwater
"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"
Sir Martin Ryle
"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"
"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects"
Brian David Josephson
"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"
Leon Neil Cooper
John Robert Schrieffer
"for his invention and development of the holographic method"
"for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"
Hannes Olof Gosta Alfven
"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"
Louis Eugene Felix Neel
"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"
"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"
Luis Walter Alvarez
American, West German
"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"
Hans Albrecht Bethe
"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"
"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"
Richard P. Feynman
"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"
Charles H. Townes
Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"
Eugene Paul Wigner
American, West German
"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"
Maria Goeppert Mayer
J. Hans D. Jensen
"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"
Lev Davidovich Landau
"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"
"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"
Rudolf Ludwig Mossbauer
"for the invention of the bubble chamber"
Donald Arthur Glaser
"for their discovery of the antiproton"
Emilio Gino Segre
"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"
Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov
Il'ja Mikhailovich Frank
Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm
"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"
Chen Ning Yang
Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee
"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"
William Bradford Shockley
Walter Houser Brattain
"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"
Willis Eugene Lamb
American, West German
"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"
"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"
"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"
"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"
Edward Mills Purcell
"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"
Sir John Douglas Cockcroft
Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton
"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"
Cecil Frank Powell
"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"
"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"
Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett
"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"
Sir Edward Victor Appleton
"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics"
Percy Williams Bridgman
"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle"
"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"
Isidor Isaac Rabi
"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"
No Award Given.
No Award Given.
No Award Given.
"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"
Ernest Orlando Lawrence
"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"
"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"
Clinton Joseph Davisson
George Paget Thomson
"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"
Victor Franz Hess
"for his discovery of the positron"
Carl David Anderson
"for the discovery of the neutron"
No Award Given.
"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac
"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"
No Award Given.
"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"
Sir Chandrasekhara Vekata Raman
"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"
Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie
"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"
Owen Willans Richardson
"for his discovery of the effect named after him"
Arthur Holly Compton
"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"
Jean Baptiste Perrin
"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"
Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn
"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"
Robert Andrews Millikan
"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"
Niels Henrik David Bohr
"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"
"in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"
Charles Edouard Guillaume
"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"
"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck
"for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"
Charles Glover Barkla
No Award Given.
"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"
Sir William Henry Bragg
William Lawrence Bragg
"for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"
Max von Laue
"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
"for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys"
Nils Gustaf Dalen
"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"
"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"
Johannes Diderik van der Waals
"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"
Karl Ferdinand Braun
"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"
"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"
Albert Abraham Michelson
"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"
Joseph John Thomson
"for his work on cathode rays"
Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard
"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"
Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"
Antoine Henri Becquerel
"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"
Marie Curie, née Sklodowska
"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"
Hendrk Antoon Lorentz
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"