Nobel Prize Winners in Physiology or Medicine

Try to guess as many Nobel Prize Winners as you can!
Source: Wikipedia
Quiz by cRedditor
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Last updated: August 7, 2017
First submittedAugust 7, 2017
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Year
Nationality
Reason for Award
Answer
2016
Japanese
"for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy"
Yoshinori Ohsumi
2015
Chinese
"for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria"
Youyou Tu
American, Irish
"for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites"
William C. Campbell
Japanese
Satoshi Omura
2014
American, British
"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"
John O'Keefe
Norwegian
May-Britt Moser
Norwegian
Edvard I. Moser
2013
American
"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"
James E. Rothman
American
Randy W. Schekman
American, German
Thomas C. Sudhof
2012
British
"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"
Sir John B. Gurdon
Japanese
Shinya Yamanaka
2011
American
"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"
Bruce A. Beutler
French
Jules A. Hoffmann
Canadian
"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"
Ralph M. Steinman
2010
British
"for the development of in vitro fertilization"
Robert G. Edwards
2009
Australian, American
"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"
Elizabeth H. Blackburn
American
Carol W. Greider
American, Canadian
Jack W. Szostak
2008
German
"for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"
Harald zur Hausen
French
"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"
Francoise Barre-Sinoussi
French
Luc Montagnier
2007
British
"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"
Sir Martin J. Evans
American, Italian
Mario R. Capecchi
American, British
Oliver Smithies
2006
American
"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"
Andrew Z. Fire
American
Craig C. Mello
2005
Australian
"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"
Barry J. Marshall
Australian
J. Robin Warren
2004
American
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"
Richard Axel
American
Linda B. Buck
2003
American
"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"
Paul C. Lauterbur
British
Sir Peter Mansfield
2002
South African
"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"
Sydney Brenner
American
H. Robert Horvitz
British
John E. Sulston
2001
American
"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"
Leland H. Hartwell
British
Tim Hunt
British
Sir Paul M. Nurse
2000
Swedish
"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"
Arvid Carlsson
American
Paul Greengard
Austrian, American
Eric R. Kandel
1999
American, German
"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"
Gunter Blobel
1998
American
"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system
Robert F. Furchgott
American
Louis J. Ignarro
American
Ferid Murad
1997
American
"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"
Stanley B. Prusiner
1996
Australian
"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"
Peter C. Doherty
Swiss
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
1995
American
"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"
Edward B. Lewis
German
Christiane Nusslein-Volhard
American
Eric F. Wieschaus
1994
American
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"
Alfred G. Gilman
American
Martin Rodbell
1993
British
"for their discoveries of split genes"
Richard J. Roberts
American
Phillip A. Sharp
1992
Swiss
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"
Edmond H. Fischer
American
Edwin G. Krebs
1991
German
"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"
Erwin Neher
German
Bert Sakmann
1990
American
"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"
Joseph E. Murray
American
E. Donnall Thomas
1989
American
"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"
J. Michael Bishop
American
Harold E. Varmus
1988
British
"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"
Sir James W. Black
American
Gertrude B. Elion
American
George H. Hitchings
1987
Japanese
"for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"
Susumu Tonegawa
1986
American
"for their discoveries of growth factors"
Stanley Cohen
Italian
Rita Levi-Montalcini
1985
American
"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"
Michael S. Brown
American
Joseph L. Goldstein
1984
Danish
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"
Niels K. Jerne
West German
Georges J.F. Kohler
Argentinian
Cesar Milstein
1983
American
"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"
Barbara McClintock
1982
Swedish
"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"
Sune K. Bergstrom
Swedish
Bengt I. Samuelsson
British
John R. Vane
1981
American
"for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"
Roger W. Sperry
Canadian
"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"
David H. Hubel
Swedish
Torsten N. Wiesel
1980
American, Venezuelan
"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"
Baruj Benacerraf
French
Jean Dausset
American
George D. Snell
1979
South African
"for the development of computer assisted tomography"
Allan M. Cormack
British
Godfrey N. Hounsfield
1978
Swiss
"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"
Werner Arber
American
Daniel Nathans
American
Hamilton O. Smith
1977
American, French
"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"
Roger Guillemin
Polish-Jewish, Canadian, American
Andrew V. Schally
American
"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"
Rosalyn Yalow
1976
American
"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"
Baruch S. Blumberg
American
D. Carleton Gajdusek
1975
American
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"
David Baltimore
American, Italian
Renato Dulbecco
American
Howard Martin Temin
1974
Belgian
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"
Albert Claude
Belgian
Christian de Duve
American, Romanian
George E. Palade
1973
Austrian
"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"
Karl von Frisch
Austrian
Konrad Lorenz
Dutch
Nikolaas Tinbergen
1972
American
"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"
Gerald M. Edelman
British
Rodney R. Porter
1971
American
"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"
Earl W. Sutherland Jr.
1970
British, West German
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"
Sir Bernard Katz
Swedish
Ulf von Euler
American
Julius Axelrod
1969
American, West German
"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"
Max Delbruck
American
Alfred D. Hershey
Italian
Salvador E. Luria
1968
American
"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"
Robert W. Holley
American, Indian
Har Gobind Khorana
American
Marshall W. Nirenberg
1967
Finnish, Swedish
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"
Ragnar Granit
American
Haldan Keffer Hartline
American
George Wald
1966
American
"for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"
Peyton Rous
Canadian, American
"for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"
Charles Brenton Huggins
1965
French
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"
Francois Jacob
French
Andre Lwoff
French
Jacques Monod
1964
American, West German
"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"
Konrad Bloch
West German
Feodor Lynen
1963
Australian
"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"
Sir John Carew Eccles
British
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
British
Andrew Fielding Huxley
1962
British
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"
Francis Harry Compton Crick
American
James Dewey Watson
New Zealander, British
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
1961
Hungarian
"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"
Georg von Bekesy
1960
Australian
"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet
British
Peter Brian Medawar
1959
Spanish
"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"
Severo Ochoa
American
Arthur Kornberg
1958
American
"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"
George Wells Beadle
American
Edward Lawrie Tatum
American
"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"
Joshua Lederberg
1957
Swiss, Italian
"for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"
Daniel Bovet
1956
French
"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"
Andre Frederic Cournand
West German
Werner Forssmann
American
Dickinson W. Richards
1955
Swedish
"for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"
Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell
1954
American
"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"
John Franklin Enders
American
Thomas Huckle Weller
American
Frederick Chapman Robbins
1953
British, West German
"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"
Hans Adolf Krebs
American, West German
"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"
Fritz Albert Lipmann
1952
American, Jewish
"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"
Selman Waksman
1951
American, South African
"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"
Max Theiler
1950
American
"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"
Edward Calvin Kendall
Polish, Swiss
Tadeus Reichstein
American
Philip Showalter Hench
1949
Swiss
"for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"
Walter Rudolf Hess
Portuguese
"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"
Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz
1948
Swiss
"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"
Paul Hermann Muller
1947
Austro-Hungarian, American
"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"
Carl Ferdinand Cori
Austro-Hungarian, American, Jewish
Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz
Argentinian
"for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"
Bernardo Alberto Houssay
1946
American
"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"
Hermann Joseph Muller
1945
British
"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"
Sir Alexander Fleming
British, Nazi German
Ernst Boris Chain
Australian
Sir Howard Walter Florey
1944
American
"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"
Joseph Erlanger
American
Herbert Spencer Gasser
1943
Danish
"for his discovery of vitamin K"
Henrik Carl Peter Dam
American
"for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"
Edward Adelbert Doisy
1942
No Award Given.
1941
No Award Given.
1940
No Award Given.
1939
Nazi German
"for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"
Gerhard Domagk
1938
Belgian
"for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"
Corneille Jean Francois Heymans
1937
Hungarian
"for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"
Albert von Szent-Gyorgyi Nagyrapolt
1936
British
"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"
Sir Henry Hallett Dale
1935
Nazi German
"for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"
Hans Spemann
1934
American
"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"
George Hoyt Whipple
American
George Richards Minot
American
William Parry Murphy
1933
American
"for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"
Thomas Hunt Morgan
1932
British
"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"
Sir Charles Scott Sherrington
British
Edgar Douglas Adrian
1931
German
"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"
Otto Heinrich Warburg
1930
Austrian
"for his discovery of human blood groups"
Karl Landsteiner
1929
Dutch
"for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"
Christiaan Eijkman
British
"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins
1928
French
"for his work on typhus"
Charles Jules Henri Nicolle
1927
Austrian
"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"
Julius Wagner-Jauregg
1926
Danish
"for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"
Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger
1925
No Award Given.
1924
Dutch
"for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"
Willem Einthoven
1923
Canadian
"for the discovery of insulin"
Frederick Grant Banting
British
John James Rickard Macleod
1922
British
"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"
Archibald Vivian Hill
German
"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"
Otto Fritz Meyerhof
1921
No Award Given.
1920
Danish
"for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"
Schack August Steenberg Krogh
1919
Belgian
"for his discoveries relating to immunity"
Jules Bordet
1918
No Award Given.
1917
No Award Given.
1916
No Award Given.
1915
No Award Given.
1914
Austro-Hungarian
"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"
Robert Barany
1913
French
"in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"
Charles Robert Richet
1912
French
"in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"
Alexis Carrel
1911
Swedish
"for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"
Allvar Gullstrand
1910
German
"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"
Albrecht Kossel
1909
Swiss
"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"
Emil Theodor Kocher
1908
Russian
"in recognition of their work on immunity"
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov
American
Paul Ehrlich
1907
French
"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"
Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran
1906
Italian
"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"
Camillo Golgi
Spanish
Santiago Ramon y Cajal
1905
German
"for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"
Robert Koch
1904
Russian
"in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
1903
Danish
"in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"
Niels Ryberg Finsen
1902
British
"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"
Ronald Ross
1901
German
"for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"
Emil Adolf von Behring
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