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History of Western Philosophy #1

Answer these questions about the history of Western Philosophy.
Quiz by ojosdefelipe
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Last updated: December 19, 2022
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First submittedDecember 19, 2022
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Average score56.3%
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This 6th century BCE philosopher taught reincarnation and practiced divination but is today most associated with a geometric theorem that did not originate with him but is named after him.
Pythagoras
Although he was not the first Western philosopher, this 5th century BCE Athenian who never wrote anything is generally considered the primary founder of Western philosophy.
Socrates
This philosopher is known for his lengthy dialogues in which the above Athenian was usually the protagonist. He is particularly famous for his Theory of Forms and Allegory of the Cave.
Plato
This philosopher, who tutored Alexander III of Macedon, wrote many treatises on diverse subjects. He is known for his foundational contributions to Western logic, his empirical approach to understanding the natural world, and his virtue-based approach to ethics.
Aristotle
This ancient school, founded by Zeno of Citium, had a pantheistic metaphysic and taught that living a life of virtue according to reason was the only good, with everything outside of virtue being indifferent. Because this school taught that controlling emotions was necessary to live according to reason, today it is typically associated with being unemotional and indifferent to pain.
Stoicism
This ancient school taught that the universe is composed of matter made up of atoms and a void, and that pleasure is the highest good and ultimate purpose of life. However, it taught that the highest forms of pleasure are freedom from trouble in the mind and freedom from pain in the body, which result from leading a simple rather than a profligate lifestyle.
Epicureanism
This ancient school, a precursor of the school founded by Zeno of Citium, taught that the ideal life is minimalistic and not concerned with social conventions. Its most famous practitioner was Diogenes of Sinope. Today it is associated with having an attitude of mistrust towards other people's motives.
Cynicism
There were two major ancient schools of this type of philosophy which questions claims to knowledge. One, the Academic variety, held that knowledge is impossible. The other, Pyrrhonism, held that it is possible to attain freedom from trouble in the mind and thereby live the good life by suspending belief as to the truth or untruth of all claims to certain knowledge.
Skepticism
This ancient philosopher, the founder of Neoplatonism, taught the existence of a supreme transcendent One beyond all attributes from which all things emanate. He heavily influenced many medieval Christian, Jewish, and Muslim philosophers and theologians.
Plotinus
This 4th-5th century CE philosopher and Christian saint, who was heavily influenced by both the philosopher known for the Theory of Forms and the founder of Neoplatonsim, is probably best known for his Confessions.
Augustine of Hippo
This 10th-11th century CE Persian philosopher, physician, and astronomer was heavily influenced by the third and fourth philosophers in this quiz in his metaphysics but is probably most famous for his contributions to medicine.
Ibn Sīnā
This 11th-12th century CE Italian Christian philosopher and monk is best known today for originating the ontological argument for the existence of God.
Anselm of Canterbury
This 12th century CE Andalusian Muslim philosopher and jurist was heavily influenced by the fourth philosopher in this quiz. He made numerous commentaries on that philosopher which influenced later Christian scholastic philosophers.
Ibn Rushd
This 12th century CE Sephardic Jewish philosopher, astronomer, and physician was also heavily influenced by the fourth philosopher in this quiz, wrote extensively on Jewish law and ethics, and articulated thirteenth principles of faith.
Moses ben Maimon
This 13th century CE Italian Christian scholastic philosopher, mendicant, and priest was heavily influenced by the fourth philosopher in this quiz and is best known today for his five arguments for the existence of God.
Thomas Aquinas
This 13-14th century CE English Christian scholastic philosopher held that theological truths can be known by faith alone, not by reason, but is most famous for his "razor" that he formulated as "Plurality must never be posited without necessity" and which later thinkers formulated as "Entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity."
William of Ockham
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