Historical Ruler by Reign and Clue

Name the rulers or leaders who ruled each nation during the dates provided. There are also clues to help.
The first two columns are when their reign started and when their reign ended, respectively. If a column is blank, then once of the dates is not known, or the ruler ruled for a single year.
The third column contains the clue.
For some groups, several different nations or dynasties have been grouped together.
For rulers who ruled more than once, their first reign is put in the first column and their last is placed in the second.
Quiz by MaxStickies
Last updated: March 18, 2021
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First submittedMarch 18, 2021
Times taken18
Average score23.5%
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Ancient Egypt
c. 3100 BC
Unifier of Egypt
c. 2686 BC
c. 2648 BC
Commissioned the construction of the first pyramid
2589 BC
2566 BC
Commissioned the construction of the Great Pyramid
c. 1479 BC
16th January 1458 BC
The second historically confirmed female pharaoh
c. 1353 BC
c. 1336 BC
Introduced Atenism
c. 1334 BC
c. 1325 BC
Died while still young
1279 BC
1213 BC
His successors called him the "Great Ancestor"
Ramesses II
943 BC
922 BC
Was a pharaoh of Berber descent
Shoshenq I
305/304 BC
282 BC
Was one of the Diadochi
Ptolemy I Soter
51 BC
30 BC
Last ruler of Egypt before the Romans conquered it
Cleopatra VII Philopator
c. 1792 BC
c. 1750 BC
He is associated with a legal text
c. 1186 BC
c. 1172 BC
His existence is significant to Near Eastern chronology
Meli-Shipak II
c. 605 BC
c. 562 BC
The most powerful monarch of the Neo-Babylonian Empire
Nebuchadnezzar II
c. 1046 BC
c. 1043 BC
The first king of the Zhou dynasty
7th May 247 BC
221 BC
The first emperor of a unified China
Qin Shi Huang
28th February 202 BC
1st June 195 BC
One of a small number of dynasty founders in Chinese history to have been born into a peasant family
15th May 221
10th June 223
Fought the Yellow Turbans and in many subsequent battles
Liu Bei
17th October 690
21st February 705
Only female monarch in Chinese history
Wu Zetian
4th February 960
14th November 976
Founder of the Song dynasty
5th May 1260
18th February 1294
Founder of the Yuan dynasty
Kublai Khan
23rd January 1368
24th June 1398
Founder of the Ming dynasty
Hongwu Emperor
17th July 1402
12th August 1424
Six of the Ming treasure voyages occurred during his reign
Yongle Emperor
2nd December 1908
12th February 1912
The last Qing emperor
20th March 1943
9th September 1976
Founder of the People's Republic of China
Mao Zedong
Ancient Rome
c. 578 BC
c. 535 BC
The sixth king of Rome
Servius Tullius
458 BC (dictator)
439 BC (dictator)
He gives his name to a society, which was itself the origin of the names of two US cities
Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus
396 BC (dictator)
367 BC (dictator)
He was given the title Second Founder of Rome
Marcus Furius Camillus
233 BC (consul)
208 BC (consul)
The originator of many tactics used in guerrilla warfare
Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus
205 BC (consul)
194 BC (consul)
He famously defeated Hannibal
Scipio Africanus
195 BC
Known as "the Elder"
Marcus Porcius Cato
82 BC
79 BC
The first ruler of the Republic to seize power by force
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix
49 BC
44 BC
Was killed on the Ides of March
Julius Caesar
16th January 27 BC
19th August AD 14
The first Roman emperor
13th October 54
9th June 68
A famously tyrannical emperor
27th January 98
8th August 117
He ruled over the empire at its maximum territorial extent
8th March 161
17th March 180
Was also a Stoic philosopher
Marcus Aurelius
14th April 193
4th February 211
Born in present-day Libya
Septimius Severus
22nd October 253
spring 260
Was taken captive by Shapur I
20th November 284
1st May 305
Retired to his palace in present-day Split, Croatia
25th July 206
22nd May 337
First Roman emperor to convert to Christianity
Achaemenid Empire
559 BC
530 BC
Founder of the empire
Cyrus II
29th September 522 BC
October 486 BC
Conquered areas such as Thrace, Macedonia and Egypt
Darius I
October 486 BC
August 465 BC
Tried to conquer Greece
Xerxes I
358 BC
338 BC
Reclaimed Egypt
Artaxerxes III
370 BC
Founder of a unified Macedonian kingdom
Amyntas III
359 BC
336 BC
Developed the Macedonian phalanx formation
Philip II
336 BC
323 BC
Conquered Persia and founded many cities
Alexander III
Maurya Empire
c. 324/321 BC
c. 297 BC
Founder of the empire
Chandragupta Maurya
c. 268 BC
c. 232 BC
Sent his Edicts to places throughout the empire
c. 224 BC
c. 215 BC
He was a great patron of Jainism
c. 187 BC
c. 180 BC
Final emperor
Brihadratha Maurya
Kingdom of Aksum
c. 270
c. 300
One of the earliest rulers in the Horn of Africa to mint his own coins
c. 360
First Aksumite monarch to embrace Christianity
Shares his name with a modern Middle Eastern country
c. 509
27th November 511
United the Frankish tribes under one rule
Clovis I
Gained the territories that had been given to his brothers
Chlothar I
24th September 768
First Carolingian King of the Franks
25th December 800
28th January 814
Crowned "Emperor of the Romans" by Pope Leo III
Was the first of nineteen French kings called _____
Louis I
5th December 539
15th April 571
First historically verifiable emperor
8th December 592
7th March 628
First empress regnant of Japan
30th April 781
9th April 806
Appointed the first Shōgun
23rd August 1155
5th September 1158
The last de facto absolute monarch of Japan until 1868
12th July 1192
9th February 1199
Founder of the Kamakura shogunate
Minamoto no Yoritomo
29th March 1318
18th September 1339
Overthrew the Kamakura shogunate and brought the Imperial House back into power, for a short while
Founded the shogunate named after his clan's name
Ashikaga Takauji
One of the "Great Unifiers" of Japan
Tokugawa Ieyasu
13th April 1735
9th June 1747
Was allowed by the Shōgun to restore some Imperial rites
3rd February 1867
30th July 1912
Oversaw the transformation of Japan from a feudal state to a world power
25th December 1926
7th January 1989
Emperor during World War II
Abbasid Caliphate
10th June 754
6th October 775
Though not the first Abbasid caliph, he is typically considered as the real founder of the caliphate
14th September 786
24th March 809
Established the House of Wisdom in Baghdad
Harun al-Rashid
27th September 813
7th August 833
Promoted the Graeco-Arabic translation movement
28th January 946
5th August 974
His reign represented the nadir of the caliphate
Khmer Empire
Founder, shares his name with eight of the other kings
Jayavarman II
Ordered the construction of Angkor Wat
Suryavarman II
Last king of the empire, moved to modern Phnom Penh sometime after fleeing Angkor
Ponhea Yat
Kievan Rus'
First Christian ruler of the Kievan Rus'
Oleg of Novgorod
11th June 980
15th July 1015
Expanded the borders of the territory of the Kievan Rus'
Vladimir Sviatoslavich
The legal code of the Kievan Rus' was created during his reign
Yaroslav I
Known as "the Founder of Moscow"
Yuri Dolgorukiy
Fought against the Cumans
Roman Mstislavich
1236-1240 (first)
1241-1243 (last)
Last autonomous senior prince of Kiev
Mikhail Vsevolodovich
Kingdom of England
c. 886
26th October 899
Fought the Vikings at the Battle of Edington and won, leading to the creation of the Danelaw
18th March 978
Known as "the Unready"
Was King of Denmark, England and Norway (known as the North Sea Empire)
5th January 1066
14th October 1066
Last crowned Anglo-Saxon king of England
Harold II
25th December 1066
9th September 1087
First Norman monarch of England
William I
19th December 1154
6th July 1189
Quarrelled with Thomas Becket
Henry II
27th May 1199
19th October 1216
Signed the Magna Carta
26th June 1483
22nd August 1485
Last king of the House of York
Richard III
July 1553
17th November 1558
Known as "Bloody ____"
Mary I
17th November 1558
24th March 1603
The Spanish Armada was defeated during her reign
Elizabeth I
29th May 1660
6th February 1685
First monarch after the Interregnum
Charles II
8th March 1702
1st May 1707
Last monarch of the House of Stuart
Kingdom of Hungary
Was the last Grand Prince of the Hungarians before becoming the first King of Hungary
Stephen I
Known as "the Boxer"
Béla I
A legend narrates his fight with a Cuman, who had abducted a Hungarian girl
Ladislaus I
6th December 1305
Was previously the Duke of Lower Bavaria
Otto III
The only son of Charles Martel
Charles I
Was also crowned Holy Roman Emperor
Ethiopian Empire
He gives his name to a town containing monolithic churches
Greatly expanded the borders of the empire
Amda Seyon I
13th August 1507
2nd September 1540
The Ethiopian–Adal War began during his reign
Dawit II
18th October 1667
Made Gondar his capital, and may have founded the city
10th March 1889
12th December 1913
The formation of Addis Ababa and the First Italo-Ethiopian War occurred during his reign
Menelik II
2nd April 1930
12th September 1974
Tried to modernise Ethiopia
Haile Selassie I
Ottoman Empire
Founder of the Ottoman dynasty
Osman I
March 1362
15th June 1389
Conquered most of the Balkans
Murad I
16th June 1389
20th July 1402
Was defeated and captured by Timur at the Battle of Ankara
Bayezid I
August 1444
September 1446
Conquered Constantinople
Mehmed II
30th September 1520
6th September 1566
The longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Suleiman I
22nd December 1603
22nd November 1617
The Blue Mosque was built during his reign
Ahmed I
7th April 1789
29th May 1807
The Janissaries deposed and murdered this Sultan after he created a new infantry corps
Selim III
31st August 1876
27th April 1909
The last Sultan to exert effective control over the empire
Abdul Hamid II
Aztec Empire
First emperor of the Aztec Empire
Shares his name with a legendary creature
Was killed while Hernán Cortés and his men were taking over Tenochtitlan
Moctezuma II
The last emperor of the Aztec Empire
Inca Empire
Transformed the Kingdom of Cusco into the Inca Empire
Ruled the empire at the height of its size and power
Huayna Capac
Won the Inca Civil War in 1532, but was captured by Francisco Pizarro during the same year
Rebelled against the Spanish and founded the Neo-Inca State
Manco Inca Yupanqui
10th April 1525
20th March 1568
The 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, and the first Duke of Prussia
28th August 1618
23rd December 1619
His marriage to Duchess Anna made him Duke of Prussia and resulted in the creation of Brandenburg-Prussia
John Sigismund
31st May 1740
17th August 1786
Reorganised the Prussian armies and had many military successes
Frederick II
15th June 1888
9th November 1918
German Emperor and King of Prussia during World War I
Wilhelm II
Mughal Empire
20th April 1526
26th December 1530
11th February 1556
27th October 1605
Under his reign, the empire grew to cover much of the Indian subcontinent
19th January 1628
31st July 1658
The Taj Mahal was built as a tomb for his favourite wife
Shah Jahan
31st July 1658
3rd March 1707
The empire became the world's largest economy under his reign, though he is also considered to be a controversial ruler
27th September 1719
26th April 1748
He was a patron of the arts, but his reign was also marked by a rapid decline of the empire
Muhammad Shah
28th September 1837
21st September 1857
The last Mughal emperor
Bahadur Shah Zafar
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
1st May 1576
12th December 1586
Repulsed a Russian invasion of the Commonwealth borderlands and secured the favourable Truce of Yam-Zapolsky
Stephen Báthory
19th August 1587
30th April 1632
Invaded Russia and defeated the Ottomans
Sigismund III Vasa
November 1648
16th September 1668
He was made a cardinal before becoming king
John II Casimir
15th September 1697 - 1706 (first)
1709 - 1st February 1733 (second)
Known as "the Strong"
Augustus II
Maratha Empire
Shivaji Bhonsale I
16th January 1681
11th March 1689
Was captured, tortured and executed by the Mughals
Sambhaji Bhosale
12th January 1707
15 December 1749
Maratha power and influence extended to all corners of the Indian subcontinent during his reign
Shahu Bhosale I
United States
30th April 1789
4th March 1797
First US president
George Washington
4th March 1837
4th March 1841
Only US president to speak English as a second language
Martin Van Buren
4th March 1861
15th April 1865
President during the American Civil War
Abraham Lincoln
4th March 1869
4th March 1877
Led the Union Army during the American Civil War
Ulysses S. Grant
4th March 1885 - 4th March 1889 (first presidency)
4th March 1893 - 4th March 1897 (second presidency)
Only US president to serve two nonconsecutive terms
Grover Cleveland
14th September 1901
4th March 1909
Formed the "Bull Moose Party"
Theodore Roosevelt
4th March 1913
4th March 1921
US president during World War I
Woodrow Wilson
20th January 1961
22nd November 1963
Last US president to be assassinated
John F. Kennedy
20th January 1969
9th August 1974
Only US president to resign
Richard Nixon
20th January 1981
20th January 1989
Was an actor prior to becoming US president
Ronald Reagan
20th January 2009
20th January 2017
First African-American US president
Barack Obama
Kingdom of Bavaria
1st January 1806
13th October 1825
First King of Bavaria
Maximilian I Joseph
10th March 1864
13th June 1886
He commissioned the construction of Neuschwanstein Castle
Ludwig II
13th June 1886
5th November 1913
Never actively reigned, with his uncle Luitpold and his cousin Ludwig running the country
24th February 1819
4th May 1830
Led various modern South American countries to independence
Simón Bolívar
7th October 1832
1st April 1837
His surname is also the name of a city in Spain
Francisco de Paula Santander
1st April 1853
17th April 1854
Initially fought for the Royalist Army in the Independence Wars of Colombia, eventually joined the revolutionary forces then opposed the government after independence was attained
José María Obando
1st April 1845 - 1st April 1849 (first presidency)
22nd May 1866 - 1st November 1867 (final presidency)
Was president of Colombia four times
Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera
4th August 1909
7th August 1910
Fought in several civil wars, and also shared his surname with the name of a Spanish city
Ramón González Valencia
13th June 1953
10th May 1957
Imposed martial law and established a dictatorship
Gustavo Rojas Pinilla
20th December 1848 - 2nd December 1852 (president)
2nd December 1852 - 4th September 1870 (emperor)
Last French monarch
Napoleon III
30th January 1879
2nd December 1887
Seen as the first real republican President of France
Jules Grévy
17th January 1895
16th February 1899
The Dreyfus affair occurred during his presidency
Félix Faure
23rd September 1920
11th June 1924
Was nearly assassinated
Alexandre Millerand
10th May 1932
11th July 1940
Last president of the Third Republic
Albert Lebrun
8th January 1959
28th April 1969
Was previously the leader of Free France
Charles de Gaulle
20th June 1969
2nd April 1974
Has a building in Paris named after him
Georges Pompidou
21st May 1981
17th May 1995
Longest time spent in office of any French president
François Mitterrand
South Africa
8th February 1860 - 20th June 1863 (Orange Free State)
22nd October 1866 - 20th November 1871
Founded Pretoria
Marthinus Wessel Pretorius
9th May 1883
31st May 1902
Last South African president before the Second Boer War
Paul Kruger
31st May 1961
1st June 1967
First State President of the Republic of South Africa
C. R. Swart
15th August 1989
10th May 1994
Dismantled the apartheid system
F. W. de Klerk
10th May 1994
16th June 1999
First black head of state of South Africa
Nelson Mandela
17th March 1861
9th January 1878
First king of a united Italy
Victor Emmanuel II
31st October 1922
25th July 1943
Made himself Duce of Italian Fascism
Benito Mussolini
9th May 1946
12th June 1946
Last King of Italy
Umberto II
1st January 1948
12th May 1948
First President of Italy
Enrico De Nicola
11th May 1962
6th December 1964
First Sardinian to become head of state
Antonio Segni
3rd July 1985
28th April 1992
Labelled as "Iron Minister"
Francesco Cossiga
15th March 1881
27th September 1914
First King of Romania
Carol I
10th October 1914
20th July 1927
Ruled Romania during World War I
Ferdinand I
9th December 1967
22nd December 1989
Second and last Communist leader of Romania
Nicolae Ceaușescu
Soviet Union
8th November 1917
21st January 1924
First head of government of Soviet Russia
Vladimir Lenin
5th March 1953
Leader of the Soviet Union during World War II
Joseph Stalin
14th September 1953
14th October 1964
Leader of the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis
Nikita Khrushchev
11th March 1985
24th August 1991
Last leader of the Soviet Union
Mikhail Gorbachev
28th April 1936
26th July 1952
Penultimate King of Egypt and the Sudan
23rd June 1956
28th September 1970
Led the overthrow of the monarchy in 1952
Gamal Abdel Nasser
14th October 1981
11th February 2011
Last president before the Egyptian Revolution of 2011
Hosni Mubarak
29th December 1945
14th January 1953
First president of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Ivan Ribar
14th January 1953
4th May 1980
Was the leader of the Yugoslav Partisans in World War II
Josip Broz Tito
18th August 1945
12th March 1967
First President of Indonesia
27th March 1968
21st May 1998
Named his administration the "New Order"
Democratic Republic of the Congo
27th June 1960
24th November 1965
First president of what was known then as the Republic of the Congo
Joseph Kasa-Vubu
24th November 1965
16th May 1997
Changed the country's name to Zaire
Mobutu Sese Seko
17th May 1997
16th January 2001
Was formerly a revolutionary
Laurent-Désiré Kabila
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