Cities that were once, or are located on the site of, a Roman or Byzantine capital
Rome was the capital of the Roman Empire for the greatest amount of time, and the same can be said for Constantinople (Istanbul) as the capital of the Eastern Roman (and Byzantine) Empire. Mediolanum, which used to exist on the spot where Milan stands today, was the capital of the Western Roman Empire between 286 and 402, while Ravenna was the capital from 402 to 476. Nicomedia, which stood on the same spot as modern İzmit, was the eastern capital of the Roman Empire from 286 to 330.
Question 4 of 5
Cities that were national capitals in South America in 1830
Rio de Janeiro
Bogotá was the capital of Gran Colombia, Buenos Aires was the capital of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata and Rio was the capital of the Empire of Brazil. Peru, Chile, Ecuador and Uruguay existed in 1830, and had the same capitals that they have today.
Question 5 of 5
Cities that were founded after 1800
Nur-sultan was founded first, as Akmoly in 1830. Vladivostok was founded in 1860, followed by Budapest, which formed in 1873 from the unification of Buda, Pest and Óbuda. Next was Ashgabat, which was founded in 1881. Nairobi was founded in 1899. Brasília was build in the 1950s and completed in 1960, while construction of Islamabad began during that same year. Essential development work for the city was completed in 1966.