APUSH Vocab (Chapters 2 - 7)

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Last updated: November 26, 2022
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The owning of human beings as property able to be bought, sold, given, and inherited
chattel slavery
Colonies in which colonists sought to replicate, or at least approximate, economies and social structures
A grant of Indian labor in Spanish America given in the 16th century by the Spanish kings to prominent men
Racial and social hierarchy in South America
The massive global exchange of people, animals, plants, and diseases, between the Eastern and Western worlds
columbian exchange
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
joint-stock company
America's first elected legislature, established in Jamestown in 1619
house of burgesses
Land owned in its entirety, without feudal dues or landlord obligations
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years.
indentured servitude
English separatists who founded Plymouth colony in 1620
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
A type of business that is owned and run by one natural person and there is no legal distinction between owner and business
A colony under the direct control of a monarch
royal colony
A colony founded as a grant of land by the king to an individual or group of individuals
proprietary colony
A colony subsidized by a private corporation
charter colonies
Attacks on New England colonies by Indians in 1674-75. The attacks slowed the westward migration of New England settlers for several decades.
metacom's war
Uprising by Indians against their Spanish colonizers in New Mexico; only successful Indian rebellion.
pueblo revolt
King Charles I subdivided Virginia colony land; chartered a new colony located on either side of the Chesapeake Bay and granted control of it to him as a reward for his loyal service to the crown
lord baltimore
First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.
john winthrop
A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south
roger williams
A Puritan woman who was well learned that disagreed with the Puritan Church in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Her actions resulted in her banishment from the colony, and later took part in the formation of Rhode Island
anne hutchinson
King of Spain who failed to invade England with the Spanish Armada
philip ii
A group of religious pacifists who were persecuted in Europe.
Laws that required all goods to and from the colonies be transported on British ships, limited American production, and duties on coastal trade
navigation acts
Freedom of religion for Catholics in Maryland.
toleration act
The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor
dominion of new england
James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
glorious revolution
The adaptation of stateless peoples to the demands imposed on them by neighboring states.
A trade system that brought wealth to Europe, and economic, political human tragedies to Africa; trade of slaves, sugar, and tobacco.
south atlantic system
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
middle passage
A slave rebellion that commenced on 9 September 1739, in the colony of South Carolina. It was the largest slave uprising in the British mainland colonies
stono rebellion
An armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.
bacon's rebellion
A class of wealthy English landholders who lacked the social privileges and titles of nobility.
British economic policy that allowed Americans to govern their own trade because it also benefited Britain.
salutary neglect
A system in which benefits are granted in exchange for political support.
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
william penn
A former military officer appointed by James II as governor of the Dominion of New England and empowering him to abolish the existing legislative assemblies.
edmund andros
Became King of England after abdication of James II
william of orange
Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rights, people enter social contract to create government with limited powers. If a government did not protect these rights or exceeded its authority, he believed the people have the right to revolt.
john locke
Largest proponent of salutary neglect
robert walpole
Served as Virginia Colony's official agent in London where he opposed increasing the power of royal governors. Was elected to House of Burgesses and served on Virginia Governor's council.
william byrd
The rental of property.
The ability of a family to keep a household solvent and independent and to pass that ability on to the next generation.
Someone who settles on land he or she does not own or rent. Many eighteenth century settlers established themselves on land before it was surveyed and entered for sale, requesting the first right to purchase the land when sales began.
An 18th century philosophical movement that emphasized the use of reason to reevaluate previously accepted doctrines and traditions and the power of reason to understand and shape the world.
A Christian revival moment characterized by Bible study, the conversion experience, and the individual's personal relationship with God.
The Enlightenment-influenced belief that the Christian God created the universe and then left it to run according to natural laws.
The rights to life, liberty, and property.
natural rights
Conservative ministers opposed to the passion displayed by evangelical preachers
old lights
Evangelical preachers, many influenced by John Wesley and George Whitefield.
new lights
An increase in consumption in English manufactures in Britain and the British colonies fueled by the industrial revolution.
consumer revolution
Land-owning protestors who organized in North and South Carolina in the 1760's and 1770's to demand that the eastern-controlled government provide western districts with more courts, fairer taxation, and greater representation in the assembly.
His work undermined the traditional Christian understanding of the cosmos.
isaac newton
Was the exemplar of the American Enlightenment. Founded the Pennsylvania Gazette. Became a deist. Popularized the practical outlook of the Enlightenment in Poor Richard's Almanack.
ben franklin
English minister that transformed the local revivals of Edward and the Tennants into a great Awakening.
george whitefield
Architect of the British war effort in the Great War for Empire
william pitt
Ottawa chief who wanted the French to return, led a major uprising at Detroit.
Purpose was to raise revenue. Duties were placed on sugar and molasses imported into the North American colonies from the West Indies. Enacted 1764.
sugar act
Special administrative courts mandated by British rule that were presided over by British judges and had no jury.
vice-admiralty courts
Required all legal documents, licenses, commercial contracts, newspapers, pamphlets, and playing cards to carry a tax stamp. This was the first direct tax to be paid by buyers in the colonies. Enacted 1765
stamp act
Grenville's claim that the colonists had this in British Parliament because MPs represented all British citizens.
virtual representation
In order to be taxed by Parliament, the Americans rightly should have actual legislators seated and voting in London
actual representation
Required colonists to provide food and living quarters for British troops. Enacted 1765
quartering act
It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament; the first sign of colonial unity and organized resistance.
stamp act congress
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept.
sons of liberty
Proclaimed that Parliament had a right to tax and make colonial laws "in all cases whatsoever." Enacted 1766
declatory act
Called for the suspension of the New York Assembly for defiance of the Quartering Act. Placed import duties on tea, glass, and paper. Revenue raised was to be used to pay crown officials. Enacted 1767.
townshend act
Organized refusals to deal with some person, organization, or product.
committee of correspondence
Law passed by parliament forcing the colonies to only buy tea from the British East India company and then taxing that tea.
tea act
The port of Boston was closed. Reduced the power of Massachusetts legislature. Royal officials were to be tried in England. Expanded the Quartering Act. Led to the call for the First Continental Congress. Enacted 1774.
coercive acts
boston tea party
Ben Franklin's plan to unite the 13 colonies in 1754 that aimed to unite them for government, trade, and military purposes. Rejected by the colonies.
albany plan of union
Delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia in 1774 to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts. Sent a petition to King George III and urged a boycott of British imports
first continental congress
Delegates in 1775 organized the Continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence.
second continental congress
Virginia-led attack on the Shawnee Indians of Kentucky, removing the last obstacle to colonial conquest of that area.
dunmore's war
Resolution created by the continental congress, which broke all ties with the independent states of America and the British government and crown
declaration of independence
Belief that people should govern themselves without a monarch
popular sovereignty
battle of long island
Patriots forced British troops under Burgoyne to surrender in this battle after several costly engagements
battle of saratoga
After launching an unsuccessful Patriot attack against the British on October 4 at Germantown, Washington spent the winter here.
valley forge
American and French forces descended from different directions in a joint operational tactic, and caught Cornwallis between land and sea, where he surrendered his whole army
battle of yorktown
Treaty that gave the colonists clear cut independence and a large cession of territory and ended the Revolutionary War
treaty of paris
The first Constitution of the U.S. from 1781-1788. Established a loose confederation of largely independent states with limited powers vested in the central government. It set up a national legislature called Congress, consisting of delegates from the states. Each state had one vote in Congress, regardless of its size or population. Reflecting the Americans distrust of centralized authority, they gave the central government no power to levy or collect taxes, regulate interstate commerce, or interfere with the states. There was no national executive or president and no supreme court. The few powers assigned to Congress included declaration of war and peace, maintenance of an army, and coinage of money. Amending them required a unanimous vote of Congress.
articles of confederation
Outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territory
land ordinance of 1784
Laid out process by which land was sold
land ordinance of 1785
Provided a method to admit states to the union
land ordinance of 1787
New England farmers staged rebellion in order to decrease taxation and to keep courts from sitting and sheriffs from selling confiscated property
shays rebellion
This plan, written by James Madison, called for the establishment of a national government. It specified a bicameral legislature with membership proportional to population, voting in the legislature by individuals, and a president and courts chosen by the legislature.
virginia plan
This plan was a counterproposal to the Virginia Plan. It enlarged the powers of Congress to include the right to levy taxes, and regulate commerce. It defined congressional laws and treaties as the "supreme law of the land" and it had separate executive and judicial branches.
new jersey plan
They were usually wealthy, educated, property owning men, who believed in a strong, centralized federal government, and supported the Constitution.
Loose alliance of politicians and citizens who supported strong state governments and opposed ratification of the Constitution.
Commander-in-Chief of the continental military and first President of the USA
george washington
Led hundreds of British ships and 32,000 British soldiers to New York
william howe
General who surrounded the British force and forced Burgoyne to surrender at Saratoga in October 1777
horatio gates
Man who financed the American Revolution
robert morris
Foreign military expert that helped train Washington's troops from France; helped US gain aid from France.
marquis de lafayette
Foreign military expert that helped train Washington's troops from Germany
baron von steuben
Advocate for women's rights; felt men and women should be educated equally
judith murray
He was a delegate from Virginia and was considered the "Father of the Constitution."
james madison
Organized the federal legal system, establishing the Supreme Court, federal district and circuit courts, and the office of the attorney general.
judiciary act of 1789
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
bill of rights
Alexander Hamilton's 1790 report recommending that the federal government should assume all state debts and fund the national debt
report on the public credit
Alexander Hamilton's 1790 report calling for the establishment of a central bank
report on the national bank
A proposal by treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton in 1791 calling for the federal government to urge the expansion of American manufacturing while imposing tariffs on foreign imports.
report on manufactures
A proclamation issued by President George Washington in 1793, allowing US citizens to trade with all belligerents in the war between France and Great Britain.
proclamation on neutrality
A 1789 revolution in France that was initially welcomed by most Americans because it abolished feudalism and established a constitutional monarchy, but eventually came to seem too radical to many.
french revolution
A political faction in the French Revolution. Many Americans embraced their democratic ideology.
A 1794 uprising by farmers in western Pennsylvania in response to enforcement of an unpopular excise tax on whiskey.
whiskey rebellion
A 1795 treaty accepted Britain's right to stop neutral ships. In return, it allowed Americans to submit claims for illegal seizures and required the British to remove their troops and Indian agents from the Northwest Territory.
jay's treaty
At its end, Haiti became a free, independent nation in which former slaves were citizens.
haitian revolution
A 1797 incident in which American negotiators in France were rebuffed for refusing to pay a substantial bribe. The incident led the US into an undeclared war that curtailed American trade with the French West Indies.
xyz affair
Lengthened residency requirement for citizenship
naturalization act
Authorized deportation of foreigners
alien act
Prohibited the publication of insults or malicious attacks on the president or members of Congress.
sedition act
Tested the idea that state legislatures could judge the constitutionality of federal laws and nullify them.
virginia and kentucky resolutions
A 1795 treaty between the US and various Indian tribes in Ohio. American negotiators acknowledged Indian ownership of the land, and, in return for various payments, the Western Confederacy ceded most of Ohio to the US.
treaty of greenville
Supreme Court assumed legal authority to overrule acts of other branches of the government, established judicial review
marbury v madison
The 1803 purchase of French territory west of the Mississippi River that stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada.
louisiana purchase
An act of Congress that prohibited US ships from traveling to foreign ports and effectively banned overseas trade in an attempt to deter Britain from halting US ships at sea
embargo act of 1807
An attack on Shawnee Indians at Prophetstown on the Tippecanoe River in 1811 by American forces headed by William Henry Harrison.
battle of tippecanoe
Treaty that ended the War of 1812
treaty of ghent
A Supreme Court case that asserted the dominance of national over state statutes.
mcculloch v maryland
An 1819 treaty in which John Quincy Adams persuaded Spain to cede the Florida territory to the United States.
adams-onis treaty
The 1823 declaration by President James Monroe that the Western Hemisphere was closed to any further colonization or interference by European powers.
monroe doctrine
Appointed by George Washington as secretary of the treasury. He devised bold policies to enhance national authority and to assist financiers and merchants. Leader of the federalists
alexander hamilton
He spoke for southern planters and western farmers and embraced the optimism of the Enlightenment. Leader of the Republicans
thomas jefferson
President who continued Hamilton's pro-British foreign policy and strongly criticized French seizures of American merchant ships.
john adams
Three principles informed his jurisprudence: judicial authority, the supremacy of national laws, and traditional property rights. He used the Constitution to uphold Federalist notions of property rights.
john marshall
Shawnee war chief who revived the Western Confederacy in 1809. Was trying to mobilize western Indians for war.
He pushed legislation through Congress creating the Second Bank of the United States and persuaded President Madison to sign it.
henry clay
Thanks to him the United States had successfully asserted its diplomatic leadership in the Western Hemisphere and won international acceptance of its northern and western boundaries.
john quincy adams
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