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Cities of the Eastern Roman Empire (Extreme)

Name the cities/settlements of the Roman Empire. Remember answers require the Latin name of the city (spelling) described in the clue Includes cities in present day countries of Turkey, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Hungary, Albania, Croatia, Montenegro, Bosnia, North Macedonia, Serbia, Ukraine, Russia (Bosporus Kingdom), Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Syria, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Cyprus
Quiz by Unknownperson
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Last updated: November 17, 2022
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First submittedNovember 15, 2022
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Hungary/Pannonia Prima
The first large settlement dates back to the 5th century BCE; the inhabitants were Celts. They called the town "Good altar", Roman merchants moved the city during the 1st century BCE. Around 10 CE, the Roman army occupied the northern part of Western Hungary, which they called Pannonia. Although the Roman Empire abandoned the area in the 4th century due to constant attacks by the tribes living to the east, the town remained inhabited. Later became the site of the modern city of Gyor
Arrabona
Hungary/Pannonia Prima
is the modern city of Szombathely which is the oldest recorded city in Hungary. It was founded by the Romans in 45 AD under the name of Colonia Claudia Savariensum, and it was the capital of the Pannonia Superior (Prima) province of the Roman Empire. It lay close to the important "Amber Road" trade route. The city had an imperial residence, a public bath and an amphitheater. In 2008, remains of a mithraeum were discovered. Grew to its peak during the reign of Constantine the Great
Savaria
Hungary/Pannonia Prima
Its forum was located where the main square of where the modern city Sopron can be found today. During the Migration Period, the city was believed to be deserted. When Hungarians arrived in the area, the city was in ruins. From the 9th to the 11th centuries, Hungarians strengthened the old Roman city walls and built a castle.
Scarbantia
Hungary/Pannonia Valeria
was an ancient city, situated on the northeastern borders of the province of Pannonia within the Roman Empire. The ruins of the city can be found today in Budapest, the capital city of Hungary. It is believed that Marcus Aurelius wrote at least part of his book Meditations while in this city. The city had at least 30,000 inhabitants by the end of the 2nd century, and covered a significant part of the area today known as the Óbuda district within Budapest
Aquincum
Hungary/Pannonia Valeria
Now the village of Tac, . An open-air museum presents the ruins of the ancient city.
Gorsium
Hungary/Pannonia Valeria
was founded by Romans at the beginning of the 2nd century, in an area peopled by Celts and Pannoni tribes. By the 4th century, it became the capital of Valeria province and a significant early Christian center. The early Christian necropolis from that era became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in December 2000
Sopianae
Hungary/Pannonia Prima
was a town in Hungary. Since 1977, it has been part of the city of Komárom.
History. The Roman legion Legio I Adiutrix was based here from 86 AD to the mid-5th century and took part in several Parthian wars. It was the site of the death of Roman Emperor Valentinian I. An important Roman military diploma was found in the town in the early twentieth century - it is now in the British Museum's collection. Later during the Middle Ages the town was called Camarum. The town has one of the earliest records of conjoined twins - Helen and Judith
Brigetio
Slovakia/Pannonia Prima
It is the biggest known Roman castellum in present-day Slovakia. It was a part of the Roman limes, the frontier-zone of the Empire.
Celemantia
Serbia/Pannonia
Founded as an autonomous civitas in the 1st century and existed until the 6th century, second largest town of Syrmia and later one of the most important towns of Pannonia
Bassiana
Serbia/Pannonia Secunda
site of the modern city of Dakovo, the original settlement vanished during the Migration period.
Certissia
Serbia/Moesia
Site of the modern village of Dobra, it was one of the key cities on the Roman road Via Militaris/Diagonalis
Gratiana
Serbia/Pannonia Secunda
It served as a Roman military base, had a shield factory and gained the status of municipium before AD 224
Horreum Margi
Serbia/Dardania
may have been first founded as a Celtic settlement in the pre-Roman era, birthplace of Constantine the Great. The city flourished greatly in the Constantinian period. A bronze bust of Constantine decorated city. It was his temporary residence and the city where he promulgated many laws preserved in the Theodosian code. In Constantinian narratives, it was the city where the usurper Vetranio abdicated to Constantius II after a powerful speech he gave to the rebel armies.
Naissus
Serbia/Dacia Mediterranea
Built after Roman conquest of Moesia, it was located on the site of the current city of Bela Palanka and was later the site of a Latin Catholic Titular See
Remesiana
Serbia/Moesia Prima
Birthplace of Emperor Jovian, crucial fort of the Danubian limes (frontier) after being sacked by the Huns in 441 and Avars and Slavs in 584, it was finally destroyed at the beginning of the 7th Century, modern city of Belgrade was built over its ruins
Singidunum
Serbia/Pannonia Secunda
Ten Roman emperors were born in or near this city, Emperors Herennius Etruscus (251), Hostilian (251), Decius Traian (249–251), Claudius Gothicus (268–270), Quintillus (270), Aurelian (270–275), Probus (276–282), Maximian (285–310), Constantius II (337–361) and Gratian (367–383)., purportedly had at least 100,000 inhabitants, was proclaimed one of the four capitals of the Roman empire in 294, also capital of the province Pannonia Inferior and later Pannonia Secunda. Modern city of Sremska Mitrovica
Sirmium
Serbia/Moesia Prima
was a major city (provincial capital) and military camp of the Roman province of Moesia (today's Serbia), and the capital of Moesia Superior (Prima). At its peak it is believed to have had 40,000 inhabitants, making it one of the biggest cities in the Balkans of that time. It holds the distinction of having the largest number of graves discovered in any Roman archaeological site.
Viminacium
Montenegro/Praevalitana
famous for its cheese, it was the largest settlement of the Docleatae, and became a municipality during the reign of Emperor Claudius, thus between year 41 and 54 AD.[4] A large town with between 8,000 and 10,000 inhabitants. In 297 it became the capital of the new Roman province of Praevalitana,
Doclea
Montenegro/Praevalitana
is the oldest settlement in the Bay of Kotor and the modern town of Risan (modern Montenegro) stands near the old city. The most prosperous time for the city came during the 1st and 2nd centuries, when huge villas were made in the area and the city had 10,000 inhabitants. Five mosaics are the most valuable remains of that period - not only for Risan but also for Montenegro. The best preserved one shows Hypnos, the Greek deity of sleep.
Risinium
Kosovo/Dardania
Since the 2nd century it played an important role during the invasive expeditions when the emperor could stop during his travels, later after an earthquake Emperor Justinian renamed it Justiniana Secunda
Ulpiana
Slovenia/Pannonia Prima
was the base-camp of Legio XIII Gemina where it had its legionary fortress or castrum. The name originated in the times of Emperor Trajan, who granted the settlement city status and named it Colonia Ulpia Traiana P...... in 103. Site of Theodosius I's victory over the usurper Maximus. The city had 40,000 inhabitants until it was plundered by the Huns in 450
Poetovium
Slovenia/Pannonia Savia
Granted Municipium status in 79 AD, remains of the settlement are now an open air museum near the village of Drnovo
Neviodunum
Slovenia/Noricum Mediterranum
Became municipium in 45 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudius, site of a temple of Mars, later razed by Slavic tribes, site of the modern city of Celje
Celeia
Slovenia/Venetia et Histria
Originally a Roman military stronghold (castrum), a town was built on the site in 14 AD, it was virtually destroyed by Atilla the Hun in 452. In present times, the city of Ljubljana was built over it.
Emona
Croatia/Dalmatia
was a Roman colony located near modern-day Čitluk, The town had an orthogonal grid of streets with numerous public building and city fortifications. It was the center of a wider area where the colonists lived, and it was packed with public services, with very little housing
Aequum
Croatia/Dalmatia/Liburnia
Name means eminence or hill, served as an important Roman commune, in modern times referred to as Labin
Albona
Croatia/Pannonia Superior
was a Roman settlement located on the southern bank of the river Sava, located in the modern-day village of Šćitarjevo, For approximately 300 years the town is believed to have been the main administrative, political, and cultural centre in the area
Andautonia
Croatia/Liburnia/Dalmatia
in the 1st century AD it became a Roman military post which then developed into a market center, site of a triumphal arch erected during the reign of Trajan in 113 AD
Asseria
Croatia/Dalmatia
Site of the modern settlement of Prozor
Arupium
Croatia/Pannonia Secunda
In the 4th Century was the site of a major battle between the warring former tetrarchs Constantine the Great and Licinius, birthplace of the Emperors Valentinian I and Valens
Cibalae
Croatia/Liburnia/Dalmatia
was a thriving town in the Roman province of Dalmatia, used by the Romans as a stronghold against the Illyrians in the 2nd century BC. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the Avars and the Croats eventually settled here in the 7th century AD.
Senia
Croatia/Dalmatia
Originally an Illyrian city, served as Capital of Dalmatia, name is derived from the Delmatae tribe
Delminium
Croatia/Liburnia
the settlement was inhabited by the Illyrian Liburnians built in Roman times, above the bay bearing the same name. Plomin was abandoned after World War II, due to the bay becoming too muddy and its inhabitants, mostly Italians, emigrating to Italy. However, it has since been repopulated, and is today home to approximately 130 people.
Flanona
Croatia/Dalmatia,
Modern city of Zadar, it was originally a Liburnian settlement, supported Caesar during his war with Pompey and was rewarded with the status of Colonia and retitled colonia Iulia .....
Iader
Croatia/Dalmatia
Founded as a Greek marketplace, became a major Roman stronghold by 100 BC, site of a temple containing statues of the Emperors Claudius and Vespasian as well as Augustus and his wife Livia
Narona
Croatia/Dalmatia
Originally the site of a Liburnian settlement, in modern times the site of Benkovac
Nedinum
Croatia/Liburnia/Dalmatia
was an ancient fortified town and hill fort of the Histri tribe. Its ruins are located in southern Istria, Croatia, between the villages of Muntić and Valtura. ruled by its legendary king Epulon, was the capital of the tribal population of the peninsula called Histri, who were also connected to the prehistoric Castellieri culture. In 177 BC, the town was conquered by the Romans and destroyed. Rebuilt upon the original Histrian pattern, it was a Roman town until 46–45 BC, when the Ancient Greek colony Polai was elevated
Nesactium
Croatia/Dalmatia
Modern Island/City of Hvar, was colonized by the Greeks, Greek ruler Demetrius was defeated by Rome in the second Illyrian War, stayed under Byzantine control even after the fall of the Western Empire
Pharia
Croatia/Venetia et Histria
In classical antiquity, it was inhabited by the Histri, a Venetic or Illyrian tribe.The town was elevated to colonial rank between 46 and 45 BC as the tenth region of the late Roman Republic, under Julius Caesar. During that time the town grew and had at its zenith a population of about 30,000. It became a significant Roman port with a large surrounding area under its jurisdiction.
Pola
Croatia/Liburnia/Dalmatia
was an ancient city inhabited by the Illyrians. The city was the location a Roman cohort in the territory of the Delmatae. The location is the modern-day village of Tepljuh, north of Drnis.
Promona
Bosnia/Dalmatia
Modern town of Glamoc
Salvium
Croatia/Dalmatia
Originally a Liburnian city, it later became the administrative and military centre of the region of Dalmatia, modern town is called Skradrin
Scardona
Croatia/Dalmatia
Capital of Dalmatia, birthplace of Emperor Diocletian, is the largest archaeological park in Croatia and grew to over 60,000 inhabitants, located in Solin. When the Roman Emperor Diocletian retired, he erected a monumental palace nearby. This massive structure, known as Diocletian's Palace, became the core of the nearby modern city of Split.
Salona
Croatia/Pannonia Savia
Formerly known as Segesta or Segestica,it became one of the most important places of Pannonia; because it was situated on two navigable rivers: Savus (Sava) and (Odra)
Siscia
Croatia/Dalmatia
originates from the year 33 BC, but it is more likely that it was established a few decades later. Several Roman legions were located there in succession, and the first one was Legio XX Valeria Victrix from the beginning of the Pannonian uprising (Bellum Batonianum) in AD 6-9. The reason for its location was the need for the control of traffic around the Krka River. Building was initiated by the Roman governor for Dalmatia Publius Cornelius Dolabella and continued by the Emperor Claudius.
Burnum
Croatia/Liburnia/Dalmatia
Originally the site of an Illyrian fortress. It became a city within the Roman Province of Dalmatia until the 6th century. In this period the city is part of the Liburnia limes (system of walls and fortifications against raiding Barbarians). Remains of these walls are still visible in some places today. Now part of Rijeka (formerly called Fiume)
Tarsatica
Croatia/Dalmatia
was founded as a colony by Ancient Greek colonists on the Illyrian coast from the island of Vis, and it developed into a major port until the Roman period.
Its name is derived from greek words for "male goat" and "hill or mountain".
Tragurium
Croatia/Liburnia/Dalmatia
town was created in the 1st century AD at the foot of the hill of Bribir, in the Ravni Kotari geographical region.
Varvaria
Croatia/Dalmatia
Modern town of Karlobag, the town itself has several historical landmarks, especially the 1713 Capuchin Monastery which has many old paintings, the most important monument of culture in the town.
Vegium
Bosnia/Pannonia Secunda
the Bosnian Football Club NK Ljubuški was originally named after this city which was a Roman town near the modern city.
Bigeste
Bosnia/Pannonia Secunda
possibly be named after Serboi, ancient Sarmatian tribe, which perhaps inhabited the Pannonian Plain together with Iazyges
Serbinum
Bosnia
one of the oldest cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World. The area has been settled for at least 15,000 years, as evidenced by the markings in Badanj Cave, which experts have dated 12,000–16,000 BCE.hanks to the town's favourable natural environment, geological composition, contours, climate, hydrographic and vegetation, Stolac and its area have been settled since antiquity. Its rich hunting-grounds along with other natural benefits attracted prehistoric man, and later the Illyrians, Romans and Slavs, all of whom left a wealth of anthropological evidence
Diluntum
Albania/Epirus Nova
Formerly the site of a city founded by one of the Diadochi, Antipater. The town became part of the unstable frontier of the Byzantine Empire following the fall of the western Roman Empire and, along with much of the rest of the Balkan peninsula, it suffered from repeated invasions by Slavs.
Pulcheriopoulos
Albania/Epirus Nova
Site of Pompey's victory over Caesar in the Civil War, capital of Epirus Nova. Is one of the oldest cities in Albania. In terms of mythology, the genealogy of the foundation of the city includes among the founders Illyrian men (the Illyrian king Epidamnos and his grandson Dyrrachos) In the 4th century, the city was made the capital of the Roman province of Epirus nova. It was the birthplace of the emperor Anastasius I in c. 430. Sometime later that century, the city was struck by a powerful earthquake which destroyed the city's defenses. Anastasius I rebuilt and strengthened the city walls, thus creating the strongest fortifications in the western Balkans.
Dyrrhachium
Albania/Epirus Nova
was founded around 600 BC by Ancient Greek colonists from Corinth and possibly Corcyra as a trading settlement after an invitation by local Illyrians[3] on a largely abandoned coastal site. flourished in the Roman period. From the 2nd century BC it became an important military staging ground for the Roman armies. it was home to a renowned school of philosophy, acquiring fame as a cultural center, and by the end of the Republican period it became a major center of Greek learning. The reputation of the city attracted many brilliant students from different parts of the empire, including Augustus, the first Roman emperor.
Appolonia
Albania/Epirus Nova
an ancient city and the chief settlement of the Illyrian tribe of the Bylliones, traditionally located in southern Illyria, During the Roman-Illyrian war in 169/168 BC the Bylliones took part on the Roman side against the Illyrian king Gentius. However, subsequently the city allied with the Molossians and Macedonians against the Romans, leading to its sacking and destruction by the Roman army. After a long decline, the city rose again in 30 BC as a Roman colony,
Byllis
Albania/Epirus Nova
In the second century BC, a trading post near the site of modern Elbasan developed close to a junction of two branches of an important Roman road, the Via Egnatia, which connected the Adriatic coast with Byzantium. It was one of the most important routes of the Roman Empire. By the third or fourth century AD, this place had grown into a real city protected by a substantial Roman fortress with towers; the fort covered around 300 square meters
Scampa
Albania/Epirus Nova
was a harbor on the Illyrian coast that developed in a Greek polis and later became an important Roman port at the south end of the Bay of Vlorë on the southern Adriatic coast.
experienced a phase of great prosperity in the period between the late 3rd and the early 1st centuries BC. In the Roman period, the city was one of the principal harbors of the new province of Epirus Nova, in the province of Macedonia. During the conflicts of the Great Roman Civil War between Caesar and Pompey in Epirus and Illyricum, the city was an important naval base used by Caesar, who described the inhabitants as Greeks.
Oricum
Albania/Praevalitana
Site of the present city of Lezhe, In the 3rd century BC, it was one of the main cities of the Illyrian kingdom under the Ardiaean and Labeatan dynasties. The city was of some importance in the Roman Civil War, being taken by Marc Antony and then remaining loyal to Caesar. In Roman times, the city was part of the province of Epirus Nova and later Praevalitana
Lissus
Albania/Praevalitana
The city was first mentioned during antiquity as the site of the Illyrian Labeates in which they minted coins and that of Queen Teuta. In 168 BCE, the city was captured by the Romans and became an important trade and military route. The Romans colonized the town. The city remained in the province of Illyricum and, later, Dalmatia. By it 395 CE, it was part of the Diocese of Dacia, within Praevalitana
Scodra
Greece/Achaea
Is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, and the oldest in Europe
Under Roman rule, the city was part of the province of Achaea. While prosperous during the early principate, this city along with much of Greece and the Balkans experienced disasters during the Crisis of the 3rd Century when external threats and internal revolts left the Empire in turmoil. During Gallienus' reign, marauding bands of Goths and Heruli sailed down from the Black Sea in 267 A.D. and devastated the Greek coastline and interior and this city was among those sacked.
Argos
Greece/Achaea
Birthplace of Democracy, During the Golden Age of Athenian democracy, a which time the city became the leading city of Ancient Greece, with its cultural achievements laying the foundations for Western civilization. The playwrights Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides flourished in Athens during this time, as did the historians Herodotus and Thucydides, the physician Hippocrates, and the philosopher Socrates. Guided by Pericles, who promoted the arts and fostered democracy, the city embarked on an ambitious building program that saw the construction of the Acropolis
Athenae
Greece/Achaea
Island city-state, the people lived in four cities on the island. Krani, Sami, Pale and Pronni formed a federation called a tetrapolis. In the late Roman Empire, Cephalonia was part of the Roman province of Achaea. Ecclesiastically it was a suffragan of the Metropolis of Nicopolis The four ancient cities of the island survived into late antiquity, with Sami probably as the island's capital. Following the loss of the bulk of Italy, and the expansion of the Muslims into the Western Mediterranean, the island became a strategically important base of operations for the Byzantine Empire in the area, blocking Muslim raids into the Adriatic and serving as a bridge for expeditions in Italy.
Cephalonia
Greece/Achaea
Was/is the chief town of the island of Euboea, situated on the Euripus Strait at its narrowest point. In the Hellenistic period, it gained importance as a fortress by which the Macedonian rulers controlled central Greece. It was used by kings Antiochus III of Syria (192 BC) and Mithradates VI of Pontus (88 BC) as a base for invading Greece. Under Roman rule, the city retained a measure of commercial prosperity within the province of Achaea
Chalcis
Greece/Achaea
. Between the 8th and 7th centuries, the Bacchiad family ruled the city. Cypselus overthrew the Bacchiad family, and between 657 and 550 BC, he and his son Periander ruled the city as the Tyrants. In about 550 BC, an oligarchical government seized power. This government allied with Sparta within the Peloponnesian League, and Corinth participated in the Persian Wars and Peloponnesian War as an ally of Sparta. After the Macedonian conquest of Greece, the city was the seat of a Macedonian garrison until 243 BC, when the city was liberated and joined the Achaean League. Nearly a century later, in 146 BC, the city was captured and was completely destroyed by the Roman army. As a newly rebuilt Roman colony in 44 BC, the city flourished and became the administrative capital of the Roman province of Achaea.
Corinth
Greece/Achaea
was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece, on the Argolid Peninsula at the Saronic Gulf. is best known for its healing sanctuary (asclepeion) and the Temple of Asclepius, situated about five miles (8 km) from the town, with its theatre, which is still in use today. In 87 BC, the sanctuary was looted by the Roman general Sulla. In 74 BC, a Roman garrison under Marcus Antonius Creticus had been installed in the city causing a lack of grain. Still, before 67 BC the sanctuary was plundered by pirates. In the 2nd century AD the sanctuary enjoyed a new upsurge under the Romans, but in AD 395 the Goths raided the sanctuary
Epidauros
Greece/Achaea
Its name means literally 'city of the rowers'. In 198 BC in the Second Macedonian War, the city was plundered by the Romans. The admiral Lucius Quinctius Flamininus was joined by the allied fleets of Attalus I of Pergamon and of Rhodes, and used them in besieging the city. He eventually took the town during a night-time assault during which the citizens surrendered. Flamininus came away with a large collection of art works as his share of the boot
Eretria
Greece/Achaea
When it was founded in 371 BC, it was the first large urbanization in rustic Arcadia. Its theater had a capacity of 20,000 visitors, making it one of the largest ancient Greek theaters. As a member of the Achaean League, the city had a profound influence on the federal politics and it was the hometown of several notable Achaean figures such as Philopoemen, Lykortas and Polybius. The city remained populated under the Romans but by the 6th century it was almost completely abandoned. During the Byzantine era, and later also the Ottoman, the town on the same place was called Sináno
Megalopolis
Greece/Achaea
is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece. It lies in the northern section of the Isthmus of Corinth opposite the island of Salamis, was also a trade port, its people using their ships and wealth as a way to gain leverage on armies of neighboring poleis. The city specialized in the exportation of wool and other animal products including livestock such as horses. It possessed two harbors, Pagae to the west on the Corinthian Gulf, and Nisaea to the east on the Saronic Gulf of the Aegean Sea. According to Plutarch, the city's citizens tried to unleash lions against the besieging Roman troops guided by Quintus Fufius Calenus around 48 BC, but the animals “rushed among the unarmed citizens themselves and preyed upon them so that even to the enemy the sight was a pitiful one.
Megara
Greece/Achaea
Theban ruler Epaminondas built the new city on the site in 369 BC over the ruins of Ithome and invited the return of the previous inhabitants and their descendants
Messene
Greece/Achaea
After 280 BC and prior to the Roman occupation of Greece, the city played a significant role in the foundation of the second "Achaean League" , along with the cities of Dyme, Tritaea and Pharai. Later on, and following the Roman occupation of Greece in 146 BC, Patras played a key role, and Augustus refounded the city as a Roman colony in the area. In addition, the has been a Christian center since the early days of Christianity, and it is the city where Saint Andrew was crucified.
Patrae
Greece/Achaea
The city was best known in antiquity for its sanctuary of Nemesis, the implacable avenging goddess, her most important in ancient Greece. The cult of Nemesis at the city came to a formal end with the decree of the Byzantine emperor Arcadius in 382 AD that ordered the destruction of any surviving polytheist temples in the countryside
Rhamnus
Greece/Achaea
was a prominent city-state in Laconia, in ancient Greece. Around 650 BC, it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece. The decisive Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC ended its hegemony, although the city-state maintained its political independence until its forced integration into the Achaean League in 192 BC. The city nevertheless recovered much autonomy after the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC and prospered during the Roman Empire, as its antiquarian customs attracted many Roman tourists.
Sparta
Greece/Achaea
was one of the most ancient and powerful towns of ancient Arcadia, situated in the southeast of the country. In the Peloponnesian War, it was firm allies of the Spartans, to whom the citizens remained faithful both on account of their possessing an aristocratical constitution, and from their jealousy of the neighboring democratic city of Mantineia, with whom they were frequently at war.
Tegea
Greece/Thessalia
was a Greek city in Magnesia, situated at the head of the Pagasaean Gulf, near the modern city of Volos. It soon became an important place, and the favorite residence of the Macedonian kings. It was favorably situated for commanding the interior of Thessaly, as well as the neighboring seas; and such was the importance of its position that it was called by Philip V of Macedon one of the three fetters of Greece. During Roman times it lost importance, but it was the capital of the Magnesian League.
Demetrias
Greece/Thessalia (Pieria)
The ancient city owes its name to the most important Macedonian sanctuary dedicated to Zeus. It fell to the Romans in 169 BC. It later experienced its second heyday during the reigns of 2nd- and 3rd-century AD Roman emperors who were fond of Alexander the Great. The city's final important period was in the 4th and 5th centuries AD when it became the seat of a bishopric. It was abandoned following major earthquakes and floods.
Dion
Greece/Thessalia
After Alexander the Great's death in 323 BC, the Athenians and other Greeks rebelled against Macedonian overlordship. Antipater, the regent of Macedon, took refuge behind the substantial walls of this city. The war ended with the death of the Athenian general Leosthenes, and the arrival of a 20,000-strong Macedonian army. The city prospered afterwards, especially in the 3rd century BC under Aetolian hegemony, which came to an end when Roman General Manius Acilius Glabrio sacked the city in 190 BC.
Lamia
Greece/Thessalia
was a polis (city-state) during the Classical Era. the city is thought to be where the famous Greek physician Hippocrates and the famous philosopher Gorgias of Leontini died. It was in this city that Philip V of Macedon signed in 197 BC a treaty with the Romans after his defeat at the Battle of Cynoscephalae, and it was there also that Antiochus III the Great, won a great victory in 192 BC. In 196 BC, the city became an ally of Rome and was the headquarters of the Thessalian League
Larissa
Greece/Thessalia
as built over a hillside of the Narthacius mountains at an elevation of some 160 m, where modern Farsala stands. It was one of the main cities in Thessaly and was the capital of the Phthian tetrarch. The whole area suffered great destruction during the Roman Civil War. It is the site of a battle where Julius Caesar defeated Pompey and changed the course of the Roman Republic forever in 48 BC.
Pharsalus
Greece/Thessalia
was a city of ancient Thessaly in the district Histiaeotis, standing upon the left bank of the Peneius, and near a small stream called Lethaeus. The modern city of Trikala extends over the ancient site
Tricca
Greece/Insulae
During Roman times this city, the capital of the island was situated in the area of contemporary Ermoupoli. In the Byzantine years, the city constituted part of the Theme of the Aegean Sea, along with the rest of the Cycladic islands.
Syros
Greece/Insulae
For ancient Greeks, the island/city-state was sacred to Hephaestus, god of metallurgy. During the Social War (357–355 BC) the Chians, Rhodians and Byzantians attacked the city. In the late second century A.D., the island may have become independent under Septimius Severus.[
Imbros
Greece/Macedonia II
The city is reputed to have been named by its mythical creator Beres (also spelled Pheres) or from the daughter of the king of Berroia who was thought to be the son of Macedon. It enjoyed great prosperity under the kings of the Argead Dynasty. During the Roman empire, the city became a place of worship for the Romans. Diocletian made the large and populous city one of two capitals of the Roman province of Macedonia. Within the city there was a Jewish settlement where the Apostle Paul and his companion Silas preached to the Jewish and Greek communities of the city in AD 50/51 or 54/55.
Veria
Greece/Macedonia I
was an ancient Greek city, in Macedon, ruled later by the Romans. Its ruins are situated 2 km (1.2 mi) south of the present-day town of Bitola, North Macedonia. It was founded by Philip II of Macedon in the middle of the 4th century BC. The city was named in honor of the mythological hero Heracles. The Roman emperor Hadrian built a theatre in the center of the town, on a hill, when many buildings in the Roman province of Macedonia were being restored.
Heraclea Lyncestis
Greece/Macedonia I
is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia, Greece. It is best-known for serving as the capital city of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon, and was the birthplace of Alexander the Great. was declared capital of the 3rd administrative division of the Roman province of Macedonia, and was possibly the seat of the Roman governor. Activity continued to be vigorous until the early 1st century BC
Pella
Greece/Macedonia I
Island city lying close to the coast of Eastern Macedonia. In the embroilment between Philip V of Macedonia and the Romans, the city submitted to Philip, but received its freedom at the hands of the Romans after the Battle of Cynoscephalae (197 BC) The city was a major source of marble until the disruption of the Slavic invasions in the late 6th/7th centuries, and several churches from Late Antiquity have been found on it
Thasos
Greece/Macedonia I
Its original name was Crenides , Krenides "Fountains"] after its establishment by Thasian colonists in 360/359 BC. The city was renamed by Philip II of Macedon in 356 BC
Phillipi
Greece/Macedonia I
was once one of the most important cities in Ancient Macedonia, founded by and named after Cassander in 316 BC. It was located on the site of the earlier Ancient Greek city of Potidaea, at the isthmus of the Pallene peninsula. At the end of the Roman Republic, around 43 BC by order of Brutus a Roman colony was settled by the proconsul Q. Hortensius Hortalus.
Cassandreia
Greece/Macedonia I
The city was founded around 315 BC by the King Cassander of Macedon, on or near the site of the ancient town of Therma and 26 other local villages. It was named after Cassander's wife, the princess Thessalonike of Macedon, the half sister of Alexander the Great. Twenty years after the fall of the Kingdom of Macedonia the city was made the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia. Thessalonica became a free city of the Roman Republic under Mark Antony in 41 BC. It grew to be an important trade hub located on the Via Egnatia,
Thessalonica
Greece/Creta
This important city was next to Cnossus in importance and splendor; in early times these two great towns had entered into a league which enabled them to bring the whole of Crete under their power. Afterwards when dissensions arose among them they were engaged in continual hostilities. The city was originally of very considerable size.
Gortyna
Greece/Creta
was an ancient city-state on the northwest coast of the island of Crete. It is at the site of the modern-day Greek city of Chania.
Kydonia
Greece/Thracia???
Name means (literally, "around the city") It was an important ancient Greek polis (city), and later a Roman city, whose large remains can still be seen. After the final victory of Rome over Macedonia in the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC, it became the capital of one of the four mini-republics, or merides.
Amphipolis
Greece/Rhodope
In legends, it was said to have been founded by Maron, a son of Dionysus, or even a companion of Osiris. In the era of Ancient Greece and Rome, The city was famous for its wine production. The wine was esteemed everywhere; it was said to possess the odor of nectar, and to be capable of mixture with twenty or more times its quantity with water. It was the largest and most important of all ancient Greek colonies of Western Thrace. The city owed its prosperity to the extensive and rich territory and also to the port which favored the development of intense commercial activity. Furthermore, Romans had granted many privileges to the city, such as the proclamation its freedom and the increase of its territory,
Maroneia
Greece/Rhodope
it was later a base for operations by Emperor Basil II in his wars against the Bulgarians. Captured by the Normans in 1185, it was later destroyed by Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria
Mosynopolis
Greece/Rhodope
was an ancient Thracian settlement, which in the imperial times evolved into a great urban center survived until the Byzantine period. The city is identified with the late Roman and Byzantine ruins saved a little south of the modern village of Paradeisos, where there is a passage of the river Nestos. The city functioned as tribal, administrative and religious center of the Thracian tribe of Sapaioi
Topeiros
Greece/Rhodope
The city was founded by the Roman emperor Trajan (r. 98–117) near the ancient town of Doriscus, and received his name. In the Roman period, the city was famous for its baths.
In the 4th century, it became the capital and metropolitan see of the Thracian Roman province of Rhodope
Traianopolis
Greece/Epirus Vetus
town on a promontory in ancient Acarnania at the entrance of the Ambraciot Gulf, the site of a major naval battle that resulted in an essentially decisive victory for Octavian over Marc Antony
Actium
Albania/Epirus Vetus
Was a city of the Epirote tribe of the Chaonians, later a Roman colony and a bishopric. It entered into decline in Late Antiquity, before being abandoned during the Middle Ages after a major earthquake flooded most of the city. Augustus expanded the city and the construction included an aqueduct, a Roman bath, houses, a forum complex and a nymphaeum. During that era the size of the town was doubled
Buthrotum
Greece/Epirus Vetus
A famous bishop of the City St Donatas , lived under Theodosius I (r. 379–395) and performed miracles, including providing a local settlement with abundant water sources
Euroea
Greece/Epirus Vetus
Founded by emperor Hadrian, and situated on the road from Apollonia to Nicopolis, about midway between those two towns.
Hadrianopolis
Greece/Epirus Vetus
was the capital city of the Roman province of Epirus Vetus. It was located in the western part of the modern state of Greece. Provided with considerable assets by its founder Octavian, the city developed rapidly ; Augustus adorned it with monuments financed by the spoils of war, but it also owes much to the patronage of Herod the Great. The two ports, one on the Amvrakikos Gulf, probably Vathy, and one at Komaros on the Ionian Sea , ensured the commercial development of the city.
Nicopolis
Greece/Epirus Vetus
was an ancient Greek city in Epirus and capital of the Chaonians. It was also the location of the Treaty which ended the First Macedonian War.
Phoenice
Greece/Epirus Vetus
It appears in the 6th-century Synecdemus, and according to Procopius of Caesarea, it was restored by Justinian I (r. 527–565). Procopius says that it originally stood in a marshy situation, and that Justinian built a citadel upon a neighboring height.
Photice
Greece/Epirus Vetus
was the oldest Hellenic oracle, possibly dating to the second millennium BCE according to Herodotus, it was considered second only to the Oracle of Delphi in prestige. In 219 BCE, the Aetolians, under the leadership of General Dorimachus, invaded and burned the temple to the ground. During the late 3rd century BCE, King Philip V of Macedon (along with the Epirotes) reconstructed all the buildings at the city. In 167 BCE, the city was destroyed by the Romans led by Aemilius Paulus, but was later rebuilt by Emperor Augustus in 31 BCE. Pilgrims still consulted the oracle until 391-392 CE when Emperor Theodosius closed all pagan temples, banned all pagan religious activities, and cut down the ancient oak tree at the sanctuary of Zeus.[
Dodona
Turkey/Haemimontus
The city was founded and named after the Roman emperor Hadrian as Hadrianopolis on the site of an earlier Thracian settlement named Uskudama. Licinius was defeated here by Constantine I in 324, and Emperor Valens was killed by the Goths here in 378. Edirne its modern successor was the second capital city of the Ottoman Empire from 1369 to 1453.
Adrianople
Bulgaria/Haemimontus
was annexed to the Roman Empire in 46 AD and became part of the province of Thrace (later Haemimontus). Names means "two-swamp area", site of a Roman defeat during the Gothic War of 376-382
Debeltum
Greece/Haemimontus
In the early 2nd century, the Roman emperor Trajan created a new city on the banks of the Maritsa River, between two surrounding hills and named after his wife Pompeia Plotina. The city would later be one of the most important towns in Thrace, having its own assembly, part of the late Roman province of Haemimontus, and had an episcopal see
Plotinopolis
Greece/Macedonia I
It was an important city of the Roman province of Macedonia, with the status of a civitas stipendaria. It flourished especially during the imperial period thanks to the Pax Romana. Then, during the great crisis of the Roman Empire (235–284 AD), the city declined and only in the times of Diocletian, with its reforms (Tetrarchic system), returned to prosperity
Serrae
Greece/Macedonia I
Was a Greek city in ancient Macedon, the most important in Pieria. It was the site of a battle where the Roman general Lucius Aemilius Paullus (subsequently given the nickname of "Macedonicus") defeated King Perseus, ended the reign of the Antigonid dynasty over Macedon.
Pydna
Turkey/Bithynia
Its original colonists from Megara settled on a site that was viewed in antiquity as so obviously inferior to that visible on the opposite shore of the Bosphorus from Constantinople that the 6th-century BC Persian general Megabazus allegedly remarked that the city's founders must have been blind. The Fourth Ecumenical Council, was convened here in 451 and defined the human and divine natures of Jesus, which provoked the schism with the churches composing Oriental Orthodoxy.
Chalcedon
Turkey/Bithynia
was strategically placed at the head of a gulf in the Propontis. The city was taken by the Persians, after the burning of Sardis, in 499 it joined the Aetolian League, and was destroyed by Philip V of Macedon in the Second Macedonian War (200-197), and given by him to Prusias I of Bithynia. Prusias, who had assisted Philip in ruining the city, restored it under the name of Prusias
Kios
Turkey/Bithynia
Also bore the names Flaviopolis and Agrippeia. The Antonine Itinerary places it between Claudiopolis and A..... of Galatia, 24 M. P. from the former. An autonomous coin with the epigraph κρη is attributed to this place; and there are coins of the imperial period, from Antoninus Pius to Gallienus.
Krateia
Turkey/Bithynia
was a town on the north coast of the Sinus Astacenus in ancient Bithynia, on the road from N..... to C........ It was celebrated in antiquity as the place containing the tomb of the great Hannibal. In Pliny's time the town no longer existed, but the spot was noticed only because of the tumulus of Hannibal.
Libyssa
Turkey/Bithynia
Site of the First and Seventh Ecumenical council, namesake of the Nicene Creed
Capital city of an eponymous offshoot of the Byzantine Empire after the 4th Crusade
Nicaea
Turkey/Bithynia
In 286, it became the eastern and most senior capital city of the Roman Empire (chosen by the emperor Diocletian who ruled in the east), a status which the city maintained during the Tetrarchy system (293–324). The city was at the center of the Diocletianic Persecution of Christians which occurred under Diocletian and his Caesar Galerius. On 23 February 303 AD, the pagan festival of the Terminalia, Diocletian ordered that the newly built church at the city be razed, its scriptures burnt, and its precious stones seized.
Nicomedia
Turkey/Bithynia
According to Pliny the Elder, the town was founded by Hannibal during his time with Prusias I
Prusa
Turkey/Bithynia or Europa
Thracian city whose inhabitants were claimed to have a "savage, inhuman character"
Supposedly the sea surrounding the city was very dangerous and full of shoals
Salmydessos
Turkey/Europa
The city was used as a harbor and shipyard and was an important staging post in the wars between the Greeks and Persians. In 410 BC Chrysopolis was taken by the Athenian general Alcibiades, and the Athenians used it thenceforth to charge a toll on ships coming from and going to the Black Sea. Suburb of Constantinople
Chrysopolis
Turkey/Europa
Situated on the Via Egnatia, it was refounded in 1st Century AD as Colonia Claudia Aprensis
Aprus
Turkey/Europa
Later renamed Constantinople by Constantine the Great and became the capital and greatest city of the Eastern Roman Empire and its B..... successors. In modern times, it is the enormous city of Istanbul
Byzantium
Turkey/Europa
Situated on the part of the Via Egnatia leading from Adrianople to Byzantium
It contained a basilica dedicated to a Saint Alexander who suffered martyrdom there under Maximian. In 591, the Khagan of the Avars captured the city. He burned the church and destroyed the relics of the martyr.
Drizipara
Turkey/Europa
was a great and flourishing town of ancient Thrace, situated on the Propontis. It was particularly renowned for its obstinate defense against Philip II of Macedon
Perinthus
Turkey/Phrygia
Later was the site of two battles during the Crusades, first a major victory for the Crusaders, the second a major defeat
Dorylaeum
Turkey/Phrygia Salutaris
Bequeathed to Rome by the Kingdom of Pergamum in 133 BC, In 2021, Archaeologists discovered as statute of the Goddess Hygeia with a serpent in her arms in this city
Aezani
Turkey/Phrygia
After the death of Alexander the Great, the city was renamed and was subsequently ruled by the Seleucids and the kings of Pergamon, then Rome and Byzantium. In 740, the Byzantine emperor Leo III after his victory over Arab besiegers renamed the city Nicopolis (Greek for "city of victory").
Akroinos
Turkey/Phrygia Salutaris
It became part of the Roman province of Phrygia Salutaris, but in about 820 became the capital of the new province of Phrygia Salutaris III. Under the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I the town was fortified with a double-line of walls and citadel.
Cotyaeum
Turkey/Phrygia
Named after one of the Generals of Alexander the Great but one who was not a major player in the Diadochi wars
Docimium
Turkey/Phrygia I Salutaris
The area was known for its fertility in late Roman times, thanks to the river Parthenios, and was wooded in the late 4th century (it is now deforested). It was here that Emperor Valens defeated the usurper Procopius in 366 AD ; under Emperor Arcadius, it was occupied by a garrison of Goths under Tribigild who revolted against the emperor in 399 AD
Nacolia
Turkey Phrygia
Originally an independent city of Galatia, it was annexed to the above city in the late 3rd century AD but was restored to independence by Emperor Constantine the Great
Orcistus
Turkey/Phrygia I Salutaris
Said to have been founded by Acamas who went to Phrygia after the Trojan war and took some Macedonian colonists, after having belonged to the kingdom of the Attalids, it became the capital of a district of the province of Asia, celebrated throughout the Roman Empire on account of the trade in a beautiful kind of marble, which came from nearby quarries
Synnada
Turkey/Phrygia II Pacatiana
Presently the site of its ruins are located near the town of Ulubey, recent findings of cylinder-seals in archaeological excavation point towards the conclusion that there was a settlement already established at the beginning of the II millennium B.C., belonging to the Assyrian trade colony period.
Blaundos
Turkey/Phrygia II Pacatiana
a town of ancient Phrygia, situated on the river Glaucus, it is said to have received its name from Attalus II, who named the town after his brother and predecessor, Eumenes II, for a time it carried the name Fulvia.
Eumeneia
Turkey/Phrygia Pacatiana
The City was originally called Diospolis, "City of Zeus", and afterwards Rhodas, was founded on the site of the older town by Antiochus II Theos, king of the Seleucid Empire, in 261-253 BC in honor of his wife, benefitted from its advantageous position on a trade route and became one of the most important and flourishing commercial cities of Asia Minor, in which large money transactions and an extensive trade in black wool were carried out, its renowned wealth is referred to in the Bible.
Laodicea on the Lycus
Turkey/Phrygia I
In 64 BC, as part of his reorganization of Asia Minor after the Third Mithridatic War, Pompey the Great founded a city on the site called "Megalopolis". Numismatic evidence suggests that Megalopolis changed its name in the last years of the 1st century BC. Became the capital of the province of Armenia Minor under the emperor Diocletian, was a town of some importance in the early history of the Christian Church; in the 4th century it was the home of Saint Blaise and Saint Peter (not the Disciple), bishops of the town, and of Eustathius, one of the early founders of monasticism in Asia Minor. It was also the place of martyrdom of the Forty Martyrs of S....., also 4th century
Sebaste
Turkey/Phrygia
From the middle of the 2nd century CE to the middle of the 6th century CE, it was an important town for the ancient Christian church of Montanism. The Montanists, whose church spread all over the Roman Empire, expected the New Jerusalem to descend to earth at this city and the nearby town of Pepuza;
Tymion
Turkey/Lycaonia
is notable because it is the only city mentioned in the New Testament where the message of the Gospel was accepted from the beginning by its inhabitants
Derbe
Turkey/Lycaonia
During the Hellenistic period, the city was ruled by the kings of Pergamon. As Attalus III, the last king of Pergamon, was about to die without an heir, he bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman Republic, once incorporated into the Roman Empire, during the reign of emperor Hadrian it was known as Colonia Aelia Hadriana, is the modern city of Konya
Iconium
Turkey/Lycaonia
name means "sandy" or a "sandy place"
It later belonged to the Roman and later Byzantine Empires until it was captured by the Seljuks in the early 12th century, In 1256, the town was taken by Karaman Bey and was renamed Karaman in his honor
Laranda
Greece/Insulae/
Ionian League
the island city-state was a center of Ionian culture and luxury, renowned for its wines. The sided with Aristonicus (132) and Mithridates (88) against its Roman overlord, and consequently forfeited its autonomy, which it only temporarily recovered between the reigns of Augustus and Vespasian. Nevertheless, the remained comparatively flourishing and was able to contest with S..... and E...... for the title of "first city of lonia"; it was chiefly noted during this period as a health resort and for the manufacture of pottery.
Samos
Turkey/Troas/Asia
Originally known as Pityusa or Pityussa, produced a series of notable historians and philosophers; Charon (c. 500 BC) who composed histories of Persia, Libya, and Ethiopia, and annals of his native town, Metrodorus (the elder) (5th century BC) who was a philosopher from the school of Anaxagoras. Strato, who was a Peripatetic philosopher and the third director of Aristotle's Lyceum at Athens, and Euaeon, who was one of Plato's students.
Lampsacus
Turkey/Aeolia/Asia
During the First Mithridatic War, Diodorus, a strategos and supporter of Mithridates VI, King of Pontus, had the members of the city council killed and granted control of the city to Mithridates. Following the completion of the conquest of the province of Asia in 88 BC, Mithridates had the cities Roman citizen driven into the sea, where they were slaughtered
Adramyttion
Turkey/Aeolia/Asia
One of the city's rulers was a student of Plato named Hermias of Atarneus who encouraged philosophers to move to the city. One of those who answered the call was Aristotle, who came here in 348 BC and married Hermias's niece, Pythia
Assos
Turkey/Aeolia/Asia
The Aeolians regarded this city as the largest and most important of their twelve cities, which were located on the coastline of Asia Minor. As a result of their direct access to the sea, unlike most non-landlocked settlements of the ancient world, trade is believed to have prospered.
Cyme
Turkey/Aeolia/Asia
also called Cidaenis and was founded by Menestheus, site of the tomb of Thersander, son of Polynices and one of the Epigoni who was killed by Telephus during the Trojan War. Located near the modern town of Zeytindag
Elaea
Turkey/Aeolia/Asia
early times it was independent, one of the 12 important cities of Aeolis, member of the Delian League, it contained a sanctuary of Apollo with an ancient oracle and a splendid temple of white marble.
Gryneium
Turkey/Aeolia/Asia
Famed for its electrum coins, its most famous citizens were the poets Sappho and Alcaeus and the statesman Pittacus (one of the seven sages of Greece), site of a failed revolt against Athens in 428 BC
Mytilene
Turkey/Aeolia/Asia
Founded by the Aeolians, its name means "new wall" in Ancient Greek
Neonteichus
Turkey/Aeolia/Asia
it became the capital of the Kingdom of P...... in 281–133 BC under the Attalid dynasty, who transformed it into one of the major cultural centers of the Greek world. Under Hadrian An ambitious building program was carried out. In addition, at the city limits, the shrine to Asclepius (the god of healing) was expanded into a lavish spa. This sanctuary grew in fame and was considered one of the most famous therapeutic and healing centers of the Roman world. In the middle of the 2nd century, it was one of the largest cities in the province and had around 200,000 inhabitants
Pergamon
Turkey/Aeolia/Asia
Under Augustus it was already on the decline; under Tiberius it was destroyed by an earthquake; and in the time of Pliny it was no longer inhabited. It was, however, rebuilt later
Temnus
Turkey/Ionia/Asia
Ionian League
According to Appolodorus, the mythical seer Calchas died here, it was the strongest of the Ionian cities and renowned both for its cavalry and for the inhabitants' luxurious lifestyle, until Gyges of Lydia conquered it in the 7th century BC, In Roman times, after Lysimachus' conquest, Colophon failed to recover and lost its importance
Colophon
Turkey/Ionia/Asia
Ionian League
Site of one of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World, the Temple of Artemis, by the reign of Augustus, it was second in importance and size to Rome itself
Ephesus
Turkey/Ionia/Asia
Ionian League
Birthplace of two prophetic sibyls; Herophile and Athenais, it was renowned for its wine, goats, timber, and millstones. The city experienced a revival of some sorts under the later Roman Empire
Erythrae
Turkey/Ionia/Asia
Ionian League
Under the Roman dominion the city enjoyed immunity from taxation. The city was originally located on the mainland at Limantepe, but probably during the early fifth-century BC Ionian Revolt from the Persians, it was moved to the Karantina Island just off the coast.
Klazomenai
Turkey/Ionia/Asia
Ionian League
the Diadochi Antigonus the one-eyed tried to unite city with Teos, however he was thwarted by Lysimachus who moved its population to E......
Lebedos
Turkey/Ionia/Asia
Ionian League
It was built on the slope of Mount Thorax, on the banks of the small river Lethacus, a tributary of the Maeander river. The term magnet may be derived from lodestones found here. A major city, it was later called "on the Meander" to distinguish it from the nearby Lydian city
Magnesia on the Maeander
Turkey/Ionia/Asia
Founded by Phocians under Athenian leadership, on land given to them by the Aeolian Cymaeans, and that they were admitted into the Ionian League after accepting as kings the line of Codrus. In the Roman period, it became a manufacturing center for ceramic vessels, located on the mouth of river Hermus.
Phocaea
Turkey/Ionia/Asia
Ionian League
Founded in 350 BCE by Persian satrap Mausolus, Alexander helped it develop. Is known to have been the site of high-quality Hellenistic art and architecture. The city's original position on Mount Mycale has never been discovered; however, it is believed that it was on a peninsula with two harbors
Priene
Turkey/Ionia/Asia
Ionian League'
Vied with two others for title "First City in Asia", name may be derived from Greek word for "myrrh", When the last Attalid king Attalus III died without an heir, his will conferred his entire kingdom, including this city, to the Romans. It was later organized into the Roman province of Asia and served as a major seaport while also becoming a leading city in the newly constituted province
Smyrna
Turkey/Ionia/Asia
At one point served as a conventus but was later usurped by E......, birthplace of Anthemius architect of the Hagia Sophia
Tralles
Turkey/Asia
It was an ancient Greek city called Pelopia and Semiramis before it was renamed during the Hellenistic era in 290 BC, by the King Seleucus I Nicator. It was home to a significant Christian church, mentioned as one of the seven Churches of the Book of Revelation in the Book of Revelation.
Thyateira
Turkey/Lydia
city in the Roman province of Lydia, previously called Tmolus. Situated on Mount Tmolus, and was destroyed during the Lydia earthquake, otherwise known as the Earthquake of the Twelve Cities, in 17 CE
Aureliopolis
Turkey/Lydia
Inscriptions uncovered by Keppel place the ancient town near Sirghe on the left (south) side of the Hermos River. Modern scholars pinpoint a site at Güre.
Bageis
Turkey/Lydia
was an Ancient city and bishopric in ancient Lydia, near the north bank of the Cayster River. The women of this city were reputed to have received from the mythological Aphrodite the gift of beauty of form and dancing. Ovid placed this city as the home of Arachne before she was turned into a spider. The Persian goddess Anahita, identified with Artemis was worshipped at this city.
Hypaepa
Turkey/Lydia
was an episcopal city in the late Roman province of Lydia. It was near and gave its name to the present town of Selendi in Manisa Province
Silandos
Turkey/Lydia
was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, it was an important city of the Persian Empire, the seat of a Seleucid satrap, the seat of a proconsul under the Roman Empire, and the metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman and Byzantine times. It was one of the great cities of western Asia Minor until the later Byzantine period
Sardis
Turkey/Lydia
is the name of a Roman and Byzantine town and a Bishopric in ancient Lydia. The city was located on the Hermus River, and minted its own coins. Its site is located near Burgaz in Asiatic Turkey.[
Tabala
Turkey/Mysia/Asia
was an ancient spa settlement, during the Roman Imperial Period and especially as of the 2nd century AD the number of public works in the city increased as it became densely populated
Allianoi
Turkey/Mysia/Asia
was a town in the north of ancient Mysia, at the confluence of the rivers Macestus and Rhyndacus, and on the west of the lake which derives its name from the town.
Miletopolis
Turkey/Mysia/Asia
It is said to have been founded by Myrinus before the other Aeolian cities, or by eponymous Amazon M.....,It twice suffered severe earthquakes; first in the reign of Tiberius,[10] on which occasion it received a remission of duties on account of the loss it had sustained; and a second time in the reign of Trajan.
Myrina
Turkey/Mysia/Asia
was an ancient city and bishopric in Mysia. It was located at the Nara Burnu promontory on the Asian coast of the Hellespont. The city became a thriving centre for tuna exportation as a result of the high yield of tuna in the Hellespont. Under Roman rule, the city was the center for customs collection at the southern entrance of the Sea of Marmara, and was administered by a komes ton Stenon (count of the Straits) or an archon from the 3rd century to the 5th century AD
Abydos
Turkey/Paphlagonia
the original city seems to have been called Sesamus, and it is mentioned by Homer[3] in conjunction with Cytorus. On a coin of the time of Trajan, it had the title Metropolis and continued to be a town of some note until the 7th century
Amastris
Turkey/Paphlagonia

In the writings of the 2nd-century AD Greco-Roman writer Ptolemy, the city is referred to as Germanicopolis.Appears to have been once the capital of Paphlagonia and a princely residence
Gangra
Turkey/Paphlagonia
was a town on the coast of Paphlagonia, memorable as the birthplace of the infamous fortuneteller Alexander Abonoteichites, founder of the cult of Glycon. It was important enough in the Roman province of Paphlagonia to become a suffragan bishopric of the Metropolitan of its capital (the above city), but faded later.
Ionopolis
Turkey/Paphlagonia
was a Roman city in ancient Paphlagonia, identified in the early 19th century with the ruins of Zımbıllı Tepe. was one of the seven cities founded by the Roman general Pompey the Great along the fluvial plains of Iris, Halys and Amnias in 64/63 BC. During its peak in the 2nd Century AD the city was capital of the Roman Province Paphlagonia as some inscriptions on stone and coins bear the title "Metropolis of Paphlagonia
Pompeiopolis
Turkey/Troas
A new city was founded on the site (Troy) in the reign of the Roman emperor Augustus. It flourished until the establishment of Constantinople, which became a bishopric in the Roman province Hellespontus (civil Diocese of Asia), but declined gradually in the Byzantine era.
The city was destroyed by Sulla's rival, the Roman general Fimbria, in 85 BC following an eleven-day siege
Ilium
Turkey/Pisidia
founded in the 3rd century BC by Antiochus I Soter, who named it after his mother Apama. It was in Hellenistic Phrygia, but became part of the Roman province of Pisidia. In 84 BCE Sulla made it the seat of a conventus, and it long claimed primacy among Phrygian cities
Apamea
Turkey/Pisidia
The donatio given by the emperor Aurelian (270–275) promised a period of great prosperity for the city; but in 276 the town was taken by an Isaurian robber, named Lydius, who used it as a base for looting the region, giving rise to the only visit of a Roman Emperor to the region, that of Marcus Claudius Tacitus
Cremna
Turkey/Pisidia
was probably a Pergamene foundation on the great Graeco-Roman Highway from Ephesus to the east, and to its townsmen the Smyrniotes wrote the letter that describes the martyrdom of Polycarp
Philomelium
Turkey/Pisidia
Under the Roman Empire, the city became the important urban center of Pisidia, particularly favored by the Emperor Hadrian, who named it the "first city" of the province and the center of the imperial cult. Contemporary buildings have a fully Roman character.
An earthquake devastated it in 518 and a plague circa 541-543 halved the local population.
Sagalassos
Turkey/Pisidia
is one of the best preserved of the ancient cities of Turkey. The city was founded by the Solims, who were mentioned by Homer in the Iliad in connection with the legend of Bellerophon. The end of the city came when its aqueduct was crushed in an earthquake, destroying the water supply to the city leading to its abandonment
Termessos
Turkey/Caria
The city was located in the saddle between two heights. The area is noted for its dark marble and for gemstones that resembled garnets. In 40 BC, the Roman rebel Quintus Labienus (son of Titus) at the head of a Parthian army took the city. After Labienus's garrison was slaughtered by the city's inhabitants, the Parthian army stripped the city of its treasures. Under the Roman Empire, Strabo reports on its reputation for high-living and decadence.
Alabanda
Turkey/Caria
Site where exiled CArian Queen Ada greeted Alexander the Great and the former was proclaimed by the latter to be the ruler of the entire region. Later, it remained an important commercial city, minting its own coins from the third century BC to the 3rd century AD. Stephanus records that the city had a temple of Apollo containing a statue of Aphrodite by Praxiteles
Alinda
Turkey/Caria
was the metropolis (provincial capital) of the region and Roman province of Caria. It had notable schools for sculpture, as well as philosophy, remaining a center of paganism until the end of the 5th century. It was destroyed by earthquake in the early 7th century, and never recovered its former prosperity, being reduced to a small fortified settlement on the site of the ancient theatre.
Aphrodisias
Turkey/Caria
The city grew to be powerful in the second century BC, it became famous for its blacksmithing, leather processing and horse breeding. At this time it joined with three neighboring Lycian towns, Bubon, B......, and O......., to form a confederation called the Tetrapolis. During the First Mithridatic War, the Roman general Lucius Licinius Murena deposed the last tyrant of the city, Moagetes II and dissolved the Tetrapolis
Cibyra
Turkey/Caria
was an inland town of northeastern ancient Caria. Its site is located near Mesevle in Asiatic Turkey. fell under Seleucid control by the 260s BCE, during the joint rule of Antiochus I and his son, the future Antiochus II.[2] It then became part of the Rhodian Peraia as a result of the Treaty of Apamea and was eventually absorbed into Roman Asia. Hyllarima remained an important local religious center throughout the Roman period; a dedication of the 2nd century CE compares the emperor Antoninus Pius to Zeus Hyllos the local deity.
Hyllarima
Turkey/Caria
The situation of the city was favourable for commerce, and it acquired considerable wealth, and was able to colonize the island of Lipara, and found a city on Corcyra Nigra in the Adriatic. In their expansion into the region, the Romans easily obtained the allegiance of Knidians, and rewarded them for help given against Antiochus III the Great by leaving them the freedom of their city.
Knidos
Turkey/Caria
was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Ionia. Its ruins are located near the modern village of Balat
Before the Persian rule that started in the 6th century BC, it was considered among the greatest and wealthiest of Greek cities. After an alliance with Rome, in 133 BC the city became part of the province of Asia. It benefited from Roman rule and most of the present monuments date to this period
Miletus
Turkey/Caria
Suffered great damage when it was taken by Titus Labienus in the Roman Civil War. In the Greco-Roman period, though the city was contested among the successors of Alexander, and it enjoyed a season of brilliant prosperity. The city boasted two remarkable orators, Euthydemos and Hybreas , whose relationship gave rise to the adage "necessary evil."
Mylasa
Turkey/Caria
Named after the wife of Antiochus I, city of significant prosperity as indicated by remains such as the Serapeum (Temple of Serapis) The emperor Hadrian is said to have taken this town under his special protection, and to have changed its name into Hadrianopolis, a name, however, which may also refer to another town with the same name.
Stratonicea
Turkey/Caria
Allegedly founded by a grandson of Apollo, during King Mithridates's invasion in 85 BC the natives collaborated with him to kill all of the city's Roman population
Kaunos
Turkey/Lycia
As Phellos declined in importance during the Hellenistic period, it grew to be the major city of the region. According to Pliny, its ancient (i.e. pre-Hellenic) name was Habessus
Antiphellos
Turkey/Lycia
was a member of a tetrapolis headed by Kibyra, formed in the 2nd c. BC and dissolved 82 BC, after which it was attached to the Lycian League.
Balboura
Turkey/Lycia
Had extremely large, high quality baths for a city of its size especially when compared to two of the largest cities in Lycia
Kitanaura
Turkey/Lycia
One of the oldest most prosperous cities in Lycia, adopted son of Augustus, Gaius Caesar likely died here under suspicious circumstances
Limyra
Turkey/Lycia
Originated as a colony of Termessos, Epicurean devotee Diogenes carved a summary of the philosophy of Epicurus on one of the city's walls
Oenoanda
Turkey/Lycia
was a city in ancient Lycia. It was situated in a river valley near the coast. Its ruins are located south of the modern town Çıralı. At the time of the Roman conquest, Olympus was described by Cicero as a rich and highly decorated city. Shares its name with a mountain in Greece that was allegedly home to the Greek gods.
Olympus
Turkey/Lycia
one of the principal cities of Lycia, it was Lycia's primary seaport, and a leading city of the Lycian League, having 3 votes, the maximum. Was captured by Brutus and Cassius, during their campaign against Mark Antony and Augustus.
Patara
Turkey/Lycia
supposedly the home of a temple of Athena where the lance of Achilles was exhibited. The city was under constant threat from pirates in the 1st century BC, and the city was even taken over by the pirate Zekenites for a period until his defeat in 77 or 76 BC by the Romans under Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus. In 42 BC Brutus had the city linked to Rome. In the 3rd century AD, the harbor fell under the threat of pirates once again. So it began to lose importance,
Phaselis
Turkey/Lycia
Large city with a cult devoted to the Lycian Trojan War hero Pandarus who fought on the side of the Trojans
Pinara
Turkey/Lycia
It was formed in 408 BC, and prospered for three centuries during its Golden Age, when sea trade, skilled shipbuilders, and open-minded politicians of the city kept it prosperous until Roman times. The Colossus of R...., one of the original Seven Wonders of the Ancient World was built by Chares of Lindos between 304 and 293 BC. In 164 BC, the city came under Roman control. It was able to keep its beauty and develop into a leading center of learning for arts and science. The Romans took from the city's citizen their maritime law and applied it to their shipping.
Rhodes
Turkey/Lycia
The cty stands out as a successfully planned, very compact Roman city in limited and difficult terrain with a uniquely intricate and packed layout of buildings without leaving empty space other than the streets. In the Roman period the city became famous for being the home of the rich philanthropist Opramoas. A monument was constructed in his memory close to the city's theatre. On the monument's walls is the longest inscription in Lycia, commemorating his benefactions and the numerous honors bestowed on him.
Rhodiapolis
Turkey/Troas
was best known in Antiquity for the Tomb of Ajax, the Greek hero who had died during the Trojan Wars. Its greatest asset was the suitability of its coast for harboring ships and its location on the Hellespont which connected the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea vis the Sea of Marmara; when it appears in the sources, it is usually for this reason. Famously, its coast was where the Achaeans beached their ships.
Rhoeteum
Turkey/Lycia
The ruins of this city lie on the slopes of Mount Cragus. Its extant remains are of the time of the Roman Empire, when it was an unimportant but flourishing city, and no Lycian inscriptions have been discovered there and there are no Lycian rock tombs, but its name seems to indicate an earlier origin
Sidyma
Turkey/Lycia
Largest city in Lycia, previous member of Delian League, famed for its diviners it was consulted among others by the Lydian king Croesus, prior to declaring war against Cyrus, and by Alexander the Great, when he came to the town after the siege of Halicarnassus
Telmessos
Turkey/Lycia
citizens of this city were divided into demes (social subdivisions), and the names of three of them are known: Bellerophon, Iobates and Sarpedon, famous Lycian heroes of legend.
In the Roman era it kept its importance within the Lycian League when the city bore the title of ‘very brilliant metropolis of the Lycian nation
Tlos
Turkey/Lycia
Name is only known from inscriptions. Under Roman rule the city was part of the Lycian League. An inscription dated to 278/279 AD states that the city was designated as a Roman colony during the rule of Terentius Marcianus, the governor of the Roman province of Lycia-Pamphylia at that time
Trebenna
Turkey/Lycia
According to legend its founders war Lycian war heroes of the Trojan War, Sarpedon (supposedly a son of Zeus) and Glaucus.
Before the Battle of Phillipi, Marcus Junius Brutus came to Lycia in the Roman Civil Wars, to obtain funds for his campaign in that year The Lycian League refused to contribute and Brutus besieged the city was and it was once again destroyed and only 150 Xanthian men survived the carnage
Xanthos
Turkey/Insulae
Island City that was one of the original twelve member states of the Ionian League. As a result, at the end of the 7th century BC, it was one of the first cities to strike or mint coins, establishing the sphinx as its symbol. It maintained this tradition for almost 900 years.
Chios
Turkey/Cappadocia
history of the city dated back to the Hittites, previously it was known as Aquae Saravenae and also known as Justinianopolis
Mocissus
Turkey/Cappadocia I
was a small town and bishopric in Cappadocia, Asia Minor. It is important in the history of Christianity due to being the see of the prominent 4th century bishop Gregory
Nyssa
Turkey/Cappadocia I
a town in the northern part of ancient Cappadocia, on the right bank of the Halys River, and on or near a hill, to which it owed its name,
Parnassus
Turkey/Cappadocia II
Formerly the town of Garsaura it was renamed after Archelaus of Cappadocia, the last Cappadocian king. In Roman times, the town was known as Colonia (Κολώνεια) and was a bishopric and an important military center, holding an imperial aplekton.
Archelais
Turkey/Cappadocia II
It was named after the empress Faustina, the wife of Marcus Aurelius, who died there in a village, which her husband, by establishing a colony in it, raised to the rank of a town, The town was close to the defiles of the Cilician Gates, and was likely situated at modern-day Toraman, Niğde Province,
Faustinopolis
Turkey/Cappadocia II
the city was an important stop over for Merchants headed to Europe on the ancient Silk Road. The city was the capital of Cappadocia, and Armenian and Cappadocian kings regularly fought over control of the strategic city. It was destroyed by the Sassanid king Shapur I after his victory over the Emperor Valerian I in 260 AD but gradually recovered
Caesarea Mazaka
Turkey/Cappadocia II
was suffragan to Caesarea M.....; Under Emperor Valens it formed part of Cappadocia Secunda, modern town of Bekarlar
Nazianzus
Turkey/Cappadocia II
Capital and Metropolis of Cappadocia Secunda, originally known as Thoana after its founder Thoas a Thracian king. After having sided with Queen Zenobia of Palmyra, it was captured by Aurelian in 272, who would not allow his soldiers to sack it, allegedly because Apollonius appeared to him, pleading for its safety.
Tyana
Turkey/Pamphylia
Philostratus ranked it the 3rd most important city of Pamphylia, has one of the best preserved theaters of antiquity
Aspendos
Turkey/Pamphylia
Named after its founder Attalos II, king of Pergamon.
Became part of the Roman Empire in 133 BC when Attalus III, a nephew of Attalus II, bequeathed his kingdom to Rome at his death in 133 BC. The city grew and prospered during the Ancient Roman period and was part of the Roman province of Pamphylia Secunda. Christianity started to spread to the region even in the 1st century: The city was visited by Paul of Tarsus and Barnabas, as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles:
Attalia
Turkey/Pamphylia Prima
Cited by the geographer Ptolemy as an important city center, in 113 BC, in Roman times housed the Legio Pontica,
Colybrassus
Turkey/Pamphylia Prima
was recorded by the historian Polybius as providing 8000 hoplites to assist the Seleucid usurper Achaeus
Etenna
Turkey/Pamphylia
Under the Romans from the 1st to the 3rd century AD the town became a magnificent city with many impressive buildings. It became one of the most beautiful towns in Anatolia, competing with the city directly below for the status of most important town in Pamphylia
Perge
Turkey/Pamphylia
Established itself as a slave-trading centre in the Mediterranean. Its large commercial fleet engaged in acts of piracy, while wealthy merchants paid for such tributes as public works, monuments, and competitions as well as the games and gladiator fights.
Side
Turkey/Pamphylia
Spartan colony that rose to become the most powerful and populous city in ancient Pisidia. However, by the 5th century it had been reduced to essentially a small town.
Selge
Turkey/Cilicia I
ancient Greco-Roman legend mentions that its name originates from Adanus, the son of the Greek god Uranus, who founded the city next to the river with his brother. Is considered to be the oldest city of Cilicia, and with a history of 8-millennia, it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world
Adana
Turkey/Cilicia II
was a town on the coast of ancient Cilicia, on the north side of the Bay of Issus, under the Roman dominion it was a place of some importance
Aigeai
Turkey/Cilicia II
Chief city of Cilicia Secunda, situated on the river Pyramus, it first existed under this name in the first century BC and was a part of the small client-kingdom of Tarcondimotus I until it was annexed by Rome, it later suffered from several severe earthquakes.
Anazarbus
Turkey/Cilicia I
It is described by Theophanes of Byzantium as situated in a plain between the two Taurus Mountains, a description which exactly, corresponds to the position of the basin of the Calycadnus. Later assigned to the province of Isauria, the town became a bishopric. It is no longer the seat of a residential bishop, it remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church
Claudiopolis
Turkey/Cilicia
Once briefly known as Neronias (after Nero) The city was probably founded by Antiochus IV of Commagene, coins of the city show that Asclepius and Hygeia were worshiped in the city during pagan era. The cult of these two gods may be connected with the natural spring of the area of the city.
Irenopolis
Turkey/Cilicia II
Home of Crates who supposedly constructed the first known globe of the earth
Mallus
Turkey/Cilicia
City was allegedly founded by the seer Mopsus before the Trojan War. Near the city, a battle between the Antiochus X Eusebes, son of Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, and Seleucus VI Epiphanes was fought. Antiochus won and Seleucus took shelter in Mopsuestia, but the citizens of the city killed him. His brothers Antiochus XI and Philip I destroyed the city as an act of revenge.
Mopsuestia
Turkey/Paphlagonia
One of the seven cities founded by the Roman general Pompey the Great along the fluvial plains of Iris, Halys and Amnias in 64/63 BC, when he conquered the Pontic Kingdom in Northern Anatolia. During its peak in the 2nd Century AD, the city was capital of the Roman Province of Paphlagonia. Shared its name with another flourishing city in nearby Cilicia
Pompeiopolis
Turkey/Cilicia
With a history going back over 6,000 years, this city has long been an important stop for traders and a focal point of many civilizations. During the Roman Empire, the city was the capital of the province of Cilicia. It was the scene of the first meeting between Mark Antony and Cleopatra, and the birthplace of Paul the Apostle. Several Roman emperors were interred here: Marcus Claudius Tacitus, Maximinus II, and Julian the Apostate, who planned to move his capital here if had returned from his Persian expedition.
Tarsus
Turkey/Pontus
originally founded by Miletian colonists, now the modern Turkish city of Ordu
Cotyora
Turkey/Satriapae
The city served as a central center and royal residence of the Orontids of Sophene. The origin of its name was Persian, meaning "Joy of Arsames".
Arsamosata
Turkey/Armenia I
In 115 Emperor Trajan began the construction of the great castra stativa (permanent camp) which it was to occupy the site until the 5th century. The town sprung up around this camp, In 530 the Persians were defeated by the Byzantine Empire under this city's walls.
Satala
Turkey/Armenia I
The city is said to have been founded and named by the Dioscuri, the twins Castor and Pollux of classical mythology. Became one of the key cities in the realm of Mithridates VI of Pontus in the 2nd century BC and supported his cause until the end. Emperor Augustus later renamed it but its prosperity was past, and in the 1st century Pliny the Elder described the place as virtually deserted though the town still continued to exist during the times of Arrian in the 130s
Sebastopolis
Turkey/Armenia I
Modern city of Sivas,
as part of his reorganization of Asia Minor after the Third Mithridatic War, Pompey the Great founded a city on the site called "Megalopolis". Numismatic evidence suggests that Megalopolis changed its name in the last years of the 1st century BC. BBecame the capital of the province of Armenia Minor under the emperor Diocletian, was a town of some importance in the early history of the Christian Church; in the 4th century it was the home of Saint Blaise and Saint Peter , bishops of the town, and of Eustathius, one of the early founders of monasticism in Asia Minor.
Sebasteia
Turkey/Armenia II
Birthplace of Byzantine Emperor Maurice, also known as Tripotamos
Arabissus
Turkey/Armenia II
Capital of Armenia Secunda, was probably granted city status by Trajan in the early 2nd century AD, with the rank of Municipium. It is known for being a prolific source of imperial coins minted from the 3rd to the early 5th centuries
Melitene
Turkey/Galatia I
In 25 BC, Emperor Augustus raised it to the status of a polis and made it the capital city of the Roman province of Galatia. The city is famous for the Monumentum Ancyranum (Temple of Augustus and Rome) which contains the official record of the Acts of Augustus, known as the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, an inscription cut in marble on the walls of this temple. , Valentinian I (r. 364–375) was acclaimed emperor at the city, and in the next year his brother Valens (r. 364–378) used the city as his base against the usurper Procopius.] When the province of Galatia was divided sometime in 396/99, the city remained the civil capital of Galatia I, as well as its ecclesiastical center
Ancyra
Turkey/Galatia I
was an ancient and medieval city and episcopal see in Anatolia (modern Turkey). In later Byzantine times, it also bore the name Basilaion. In late antiquity, the town gained in prominence due to its location on the so-called "Pilgrim Road"
Iuliopolis
Turkey/Galatia I
Located between Lagania and Ancyra, Emperor Anastasius had a residence here. It also appears, under the name Rhegemnezos or Rhegemnezos in the Synecdemus. It appears as Mizagus in the Tabula Peutingeriana.
Mnizus
Turkey/Galatia I
was the chief city of the Galatian tribe of Trocmi, one of the three Celtic tribes which migrated from the Danube Valley, Regarded as a significant site of metalworking because coins have been found that were minted there in the early 1st century bearing the likenesses of Marcus Aurelius and Elagabalus.
Tavium
Turkey/Galatia II Salutaris
The city was fortified by the emperor Zeno in the 5th century, but did not rise to prominence until the 7th century. Its strategic location in central Asia Minor made the city a vital stronghold against the armies of the Umayyad Caliphate following the Muslim conquest of the Levant
Amorium
Turkey/Galatia II
was an ancient city and bishopric in Asia Minor. Its site is tentatively located near Turgut. became a suffragan bishopric of the Metropolitan of Pessinus, in Galatia Salutaris (erected 398)
Claneus
Turkey/Galatia II Salutaris
was the capital city of ancient Phrygia. It was located at the site of modern Yassıhüyük, about 70–80 km (43–50 mi) southwest of Ankara (capital of Turkey) According to ancient tradition, in 333 BCE Alexander the Great cut (or otherwise unfastened) the Gordian Knot: this intricate knot joined the yoke to the pole of a Phrygian wagon that stood on the acropolis of the city
Gordion
Turkey/Galatia II Salutaris
Allegedly the site where the apostle Paul met one his disciples Timothy
Lystra
Turkey/Galatia II Salutaris
Capital of Galatia II, called the largest trading center west of the Halys river
Pessinus
Turkey/Galatia II Salutaris
The city is known from ecclesiastical records; no geographer or historian mentions a city of this name, possibly associated with Galatian tribe the Trocmi
Trocmades
Hint
Answer
Turkey/Isauria
was a town of ancient Cilicia, and in the later province of Isauria, inhabited in Roman and Byzantine times. It later became a bishopric; no longer the seat of a residential bishop, it remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church. Its site is located near Balabolu, Asiatic Turkey.
Adrasos
Turkey/Isauria
name means "windmill" in Latin, was given by Mark Anthony to Cleopatra as a wedding present and Roman coins have been discovered in the course of excavation
Anemurion
Turkey/Isauria
Had a problem issue with pirates until Rome intervened, founded by Sandocus, enjoyed a second period of wealth as the Romans secured the Mediterranean trade routes and built a city around the port with villas, palaces, waterworks, and baths.
Celenderis
Turkey/Isauria
City became a refuge for Mediterranean pirates due the Ptolemy dynasty's apathy
Coracesium
Turkey/Isauria
Located near the river Cydnus, place where the widow of Leo I, Empress Verina was exiled
Dalisandus
Turkey/Isauria
The city, whose previous name is unknown, was named after Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 16 BC) One of the ten cities that composed the Isaurian Decapolis.
Dometiopolis
Turkey/Isauria
was an ancient town in the Roman province of Isauria. The city took its name from Germanicus, grandson of first Emperor Octavian Augustus, as several others.
Germanicopolis
Turkey/Isauria
This city was the birthplace of Emperor Zeno (474–491), and was later renamed in his honor
Rusumblada
Turkey/Isauria
as founded by Seleucus I Nicator in the early 3rd century BC, one of several cities he named after himself. The new city up river was doubtless seen as safer against attacks from the sea so Seleucia achieved considerable commercial prosperity as a port for this corner of Cilicia (later named Isauria) Later became a religious center with a renowned 2nd century Temple of Jupiter. It was also the site of a noted school of philosophy and literature, the birthplace of peripatetics Athenaeus and Xenarchus.
Seleucia
Turkey/Isauria
was a port-town on the west coast of ancient Cilicia and later of Isauria, at the mouth of a small river of the same name, now called Musa Çay. Site of Emperor Trajan's death, was situated on a precipitous rock, surrounded on almost every side by the sea, by which position it was rendered almost impregnable
Selinus
Turkey/Helenopontus
Conquered by Rome in 71 BC during the 3rd Mithridatic War, population 25,000
Amisos
Turkey/Helenopontus
home of the geographer Strabo, Capital of Helenopontus
Amasya
Turkey/Helenopontus
When the last king Mithradates VI was defeated by the Romans, Pompey the Great founded a "new city", Neapolis (Ancient Greek: Νεάπολις), which later changed its name to Neoclaudiopolis, the forerunner of modern Vezirköprü. In late antiquity, the town returned to its original name,
Andrapa
Turkey/Helenopontus
Birthplace and burial place of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus and one of Rome's greatest foes, issued its own coinage, founded colonies, and gave its name to a red earth pigment, which was mined in Cappadocia for use throughout the ancient world.
Sinope
Turkey/Helenopontus
Strabo claimed that the city was founded by Semiramis, a legendary Assyrian queen. In 49 BC, civil war broke out between Julius Caesar and Pompey. While the Romans were distracted by this, Pharnaces II of Pontus, son of Mithridates, decided to seize the opportunity and take revenge for his father. His attack on the city was halted by Julius Caesar in a bloody battle. While Caesar's army suffered great losses, Pharnaces's was completely destroyed in five hours. After this victory, Caesar sent his famous message to the Roman Senate: "Veni Vidi Vici", meaning "I came, I saw, I conquered".
Zela
Turkey/Hellespontus
The city was said to have been founded by Pelasgians from Thessaly, according to tradition at the coming of the Argonauts; The city was resolutely held by the Romans against King Mithridates VI of Pontus who besieged it with 300,000 men in 74 BC, but it withstood him stoutly, and the siege was raised by Lucullus: the loyalty of the city was rewarded by an extension of territory and other privileges. Under Tiberius, it was incorporated into the Roman Empire but remained the capital of Mysia (afterwards, Hellespontus) and became one of the great cities of the ancient world.
Cyzicus
Turkey/Hellespontus
Founded in 709 B.C., the ancient city is located in the village of Kemer in the township of Biga in Çanakkale province of Turkey, currently. A major coastal city with two harbors in the Roman period, the city had intensive relations with Thrace and Anatolia throughout history.
Parium
Turkey/Hellespontus
name means "silent place", had been abandoned by the time of Augustus
Sigieon
Turkey/Hellespontus
was an ancient settlement in the Troad, Asia Minor that is at the present site of the village of Kurşunlutepe, near the town of Bayramiç in Turkey. The settlement is notable for being the location where the famous library of Aristotle was kept before being moved to Pergamum and Alexandria.
Skepsis
Turkey/Honorias
Birthplace of Philaeterus founder of the city of Pergamum's royal dynasty. Emperor Theodosius I (379–392) incorporated it into Honorias, when he carved out this new province from portions of Bithynia and Paphlagonia and named the province after his younger son Honorius.
Tieion
Turkey/Mesopotamia
Now the city of Diyarbakir, was established as an Aramean settlement, circa the 3rd millennium BC. It was enlarged and strengthened by Constantius II, in whose reign it was besieged and taken after seventy-three days by the Sassanid king Shapur II (359). The Roman soldiers and a large part of the population of the town were massacred by the Persians.
Amida
Turkey/Mesopotamia
was besieged three times by the Sasanian army under Shapur II (r. 309–379) in the first half of the 4th century; each time, the city's fortifications held. The Syriac poet Ephrem the Syrian witnessed all three sieges, and praised the city's successive bishops for their contributions to the defenses in his Carmina Nisibena, while the Roman Caesar Julian (r. 355–363) described the third siege in his panegyric to his senior co-emperor, the Augustus Constantius II (r. 337–361).The Roman soldier and Latin historian Ammianus Marcellinus described the city, fortified with walls, towers, and a citadel, as "the strongest bulwark of the Orient".
Nisibis
Turkey/Osrhoene
as founded at some point between the 25th and 20th centuries BC as a merchant colony by Sumerian traders from Ur as the city of Harran. The city continued to be prominent after the fall of Assyria and experienced varying degrees of foreign cultural influence during its time under the Neo-Babylonian (609–539 BC), Achaemenid (539–330 BC), Macedonian (330–312 BC) and Seleucid (312–132 BC) empires. During classical antiquity the city was often contested between the Roman and Parthian (later Sasanian) empires. In 53 BC Harran was the site of one of the worst military defeats in Roman history.
Carrhae
Turkey/Mesopotamia
was an important East Roman fortress city in northern Mesopotamia on the border with the Sassanid Empire. Because of its great strategic importance, it featured prominently in the Roman-Persian conflicts (in 530, 540, 544, 573, and 604). During the Anastasian War in 502–506, the Roman armies fared poorly against the Sassanid Persians. Therefore, in 505, while the Persian King Kavadh I was distracted in the East, Emperor Anastasius I decided to rebuild a village,only 18 kilometers westwards from N...... and just 5 km from the actual border with Persia, to be "a refuge for the army in which they might rest, and for the preparation of weapons, and to guard the country of the Arabs from the inroads of the Persians and Saracens". Was then renamed Anastasiopolis and became the seat of the Roman Mesopotamia.
Dara
Turkey/Osrhoene
Founded during the Hellenistic period by King Seleucus I Nicator (r. 305–281 BC), founder of the Seleucid Empire. It later became capital of the Kingdom of Osrhoene, and continued as capital of the Roman province of Osrhoene. In Late Antiquity, it became a prominent center of Christian learning and seat of the Catechetical School of E..... became one of the frontier cities of the province of Osrhoene and lay close to the border of the Sasanian Empire. A major eponymous battle took place between the Roman armies under the command of the emperor Valerian and the Sasanian forces under emperor Shapur I in 260 The Roman army was defeated and captured in its entirety by the Persian forces, including Emperor Valerian himself, an event which had never previously happened.
Edessa
Turkey Osrhoene
The modern city of Raqqa traces its history to the Hellenistic period, with the foundation of the city of Nikephorion. In Roman times, it was part of the Roman province of Osrhoene but had declined by the fourth century. Rebuilt by Byzantine Emperor Leo I (r. 457–474 AD) in 466, it was named Leontopolis ("city of Leon") after him, but the old name prevailed. The city played an important role in the Byzantine Empire's relations with Sassanid Persia and the wars fought between the two empires.
Callinicum
Turkey/Osrhoene
According to Pliny it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator after the death of Alexander the Great. According to the Byzantine historian John Malalas, the city was built by the Roman Emperor Constantine I on the site of former Maximianopolis, which had been destroyed by a Persian attack and an earthquake.
Nicephorium
Turkey/Osrhoene
Its coins show that it was a Roman colony from the time of Septimius Severus. The Notitia Dignitatum represents it as under the jurisdiction of the governor or Dux of Osrhoene. Hierocles also locates it in this province but under the name of Theodosiopolis it had in fact obtained the favor of Theodosius the Great and taken his name. It was fortified by Justinian. In 1393 it was nearly destroyed by Tamerlane's troops.
Resaena
Turkey/Europa
A valuable prize, the city was repeatedly sacked: by the Triballi in 376 BC, Philip II of Macedon in 350 BC; later by Lysimachus of Thrace,[14] the Seleucids, the Ptolemies, and again by the Macedonians. In 170 BC the Roman armies and those of Eumenes II of Pergamon besieged and sacked it. The town seems to have declined in importance after the middle of the 4th century BC. Cicero ridicules the city as a byword for stupidity in his letters to Atticus
Abdera
Turkey/Pontus Polemoniacus
was an ancient city located in ancient Pontus, now in modern Turkey. It is known that during Augustus the area of the city had expanded to reach the size of civitates (City-State) in the region. he Hittite temple in the city was dedicated to the goddess Ma.It was visited by the geographer Strabo and Julius Caesar.
Comana Pontica
Turkey/Pontus Polemoniacus
Modern city of Giresun, Pharnaces I of Pontus renamed the city Pharnacia after himself after he captured the city in 183 BC; and it was called by that name as late as the 2nd century AD
Kerasus
Turkey/Pontus Polemoniacus
The 6th century Byzantine historian Procopius writes that the Roman general Pompey captured the then ancient fortress and renamed. In the Byzantine period, the city was rebuilt by Justinian I (r. 527–565). In the 7th century, it became part of the Armeniac Theme, and later of Chaldia, before finally becoming the seat of a separate theme by 863. It was attacked by Arab raids in 778 and in 940
Koloneia
Turkey/Pontus Polemoniacus
It was known as Cabira in the Hellenistic period . It was one of the favorite residences of Mithridates the Great, who built a palace there, and later of King Polemon I and his successors. . Pompey made it a city and gave it the name of Diopolis, while Pythodoris, widow of Polemon, made it her capital and called it Sebaste.
Neocaesarea
Turkey/Pontus Polemoniacus
Named after King Polemon I, the Roman client king appointed by Mark Antony. Under Nero, the kingdom became a Roman province in AD 62. In about 295, Diocletian (r. 284–305) divided the province into three smaller provinces, one of which was Pontus Polemoniacus, called after this city, which was its administrative capital. As the Roman Empire developed into the Byzantine Empire, the city lost some of its regional importance.
Polemonion
Turkey/Pontus Polemoniacus
Modern city of Rize, its name means "mountain slopes". The city is built around a small bay on the Black Sea coast, on a narrow strip of flat land between the sea and the mountains behind.
Rhizus
Turkey/Pontus Polemoniacus
the modern city, Trabzon is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey
the ancient city with its natural harbours was added to the Kingdom of Pontus by Pharnaces I. Mithridates VI Eupator made it the home port of the Pontic fleet, in his quest to remove the Romans from Anatolia. It was greatly affected by two events over the following centuries: in the civil war between Septimius Severus and Pescennius Niger, the city suffered for its support of the latter, and in 257 the city was pillaged by the Goths
Trapezus
Syria/Euphratensis
Base of Roman Legio X Fretensis, capital of the Cyrrhestica district. By the 1st century AD, it had become a Roman administrative, military, and commercial center on the trade route between Antioch and the Euphrates River crossing at Z.....
Cyrrhus
Turkey/Euphratensis
Likely named after Roman General Germanicus, conquered by Muslims in 645
Germanicea
Turkey/Euphratensis
was founded sometime before 245 BC on the previous Neo-Hittite site of Kummuh by the Orontid king of Sophene, Sames I. Under the Roman emperor Hadrian (r. 117–138), the city was given metropolis status. Roman legions were later placed here to discourage the Sasanian Empire (224–651) from attacking it. In 260, it was the first city that was sacked by the Sasanian emperor Shapur I (r. 240–270) following his capture of the Roman emperor Valerian (r. 253–260)
Samosata
Turkey/Euphratensis
was founded in the early 3rd century BC as the city of Seleucia by Seleucus I Nicator, a Diadochus (successor) to Alexander the Great and Hellenistic Greek founder of the Seleucid Kingdom, on the site where he had the first bridge over the Euphrates built. In 64 BC, the Roman Republic gained control of the city. It was of great importance to the Roman Empire as it was located at a strategically important place. Up to 70,000 people lived in the city, and it became a center for the military and commerce for the ancient Romans.
Zeugma
Turkey/Sophene
Frontier town that was the site of a substantial Roman defeat. The subsequent eponymous treaty was humiliating for Rome: not only would the Romans leave Armenia and surrender all forts they held, but they also agreed to build a bridge over the nearby Arsanias river over which Vologases could pass in triumph, sitting atop an elephant.[
Rhandeia
Turkey/Armenia Major
Modern city of Erzurum, After the partition of Armenia between the Eastern Roman Empire and Sassanid Persia in 387 AD, the city passed into the hands of the Romans. They fortified the city and renamed it, after Emperor Theodosius I.
As the chief military stronghold along the eastern border of the empire, Theodosiopolis held a highly important strategic location and was fiercely contested in wars between the Byzantines and Persians. Emperors Anastasius I and Justinian I both refortified the city and built new defenses during their reigns.
Theodosiopolis
Turkey/Thracia
was a town of ancient Thrace on the Propontis, 22 Roman miles east from Perinthus, and 44 Roman miles west from Constantinople,[6] near the southern end of the wall built by Anastasius I Dicorus for the protection of his capital.
Selymbria
Turkey/Thracia
was an ancient city in Thrace. It was located at the Thracian Chersonese peninsula on the European coast of the Hellespont, opposite the ancient city of Abydos, and near the town of Eceabat in Turkey. is first mentioned in Homer's Iliad as a Thracian settlement, and was allied with Troy during the Trojan War. Is bizarrely referred to as one of the "three large capital cities" of the Roman Empire in Weilüe, a 3rd-century AD Chinese text
Sestos
Turkey/Syria I
The city was founded by Seleucus I Nicator in 300 BC. This city served as the capital of the Seleucid Empire and later as regional capital to both the Roman and Byzantine Empire. Was heavily involved in the spice trade and lay within easy reach of the Silk Road and the Royal Road. During the late Hellenistic period and Middle Roman Empire, the city's population may have reached a peak of over 500,000 inhabitants, making the city the third largest in the Empire after Rome and Alexandria and one of the most important cities in the eastern Mediterranean.
Antioch
Syria/Syria Salutaris
Modern city of Homs, grew to prominence after the new-found wealth of the Emesene dynasty. The Emesene proved their loyalty to Rome once more when they aided Gaius Julius Caesar in his siege of Alexandria in 48 BC, by sending him army detachments. Under the Romans, the city began to show attributes of a Greek city-state and traces of Roman town planning still remain. Its transformation into a major city was completed under the reign of Emperor Antoninus Pius (138–161) when the city began to mint coins.
Emesa
Syria/Syria Salutaris
Modern city of Hama, was renamed after the Seleucid Emperor Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Later, in AD 330, the capital of the Roman Empire was moved to Byzantium, and the city continued to prosper. In Byzantine days, the city was known as Emath or Emathoùs, Roman rule from Byzantium meant the Christian religion was strengthened throughout the Near East, and churches were built in this city.
Epiphania
Syria/Syria I
Was originally an acropolis of Cyrrhestica during the Hellenistic period.The Battle of Mount Gindarus took place near the town in 38 BC. The Parthians under Pacorus I suffered a massive defeat to the Roman armies of Ventidius and Pacorus himself was killed in battle. Emperor Theodosius I fortified the city during his reign (379–395). Traces of the fortified wall still remain on the south and west side of the tell, while the modern village is located at the base.
Gindarus
Syria/Syria I
In the third century, the city was the capital of Euphratensis province and one of the great cities of Roman Syria. It was, however, in a ruinous state when Julian gathered his troops there before marching to his defeat and death in Mesopotamia. Sassanid Emperor Khosrau I held it to ransom after Byzantine Emperor Justinian I had failed to defend it.
Hierapolis
Syria/Syria I
was then an important seaport on the Gulf of Issus. Malalas writes that the city was founded by Cilix, son of Agenor. Harpalus erected a brazen statue of Glycera by the side of his own statue here. In 64 BC, it was later annexed by the Roman Empire.
Rhosos
Syria/Syria Salutaris
Raphanea was the fortified headquarters of the Legio III Gallica from which was launched the successful bid of 14-year-old Elagabalus to become Roman Emperor in 218
Raphaneae
Cyprus
The city was allegedly founded by the Achaeans Cepheus and Praxandrus who ended up there after the Trojan War. As the town grew prosperous, the Romans established the foundations of its castle in the 1st century AD. The city later grew in importance after the 9th century due to the safety offered by the castle, and played a pivotal role under the Lusignan rule as the city never capitulated.
Ceryneia
Cyprus
he city-kingdom was originally established in the 13th century BC. Ptolemy I conquered Cyprus in 312 BC and killed Poumyathon, the Phoenician king of the city, and burned the temples. Shortly afterwards the Cypriot city-kingdoms were dissolved and the Phoenician dynasty of the city was abolished. Following these events the area lost its religious character. Strong earthquakes hit the city in 76 AD and the year after, but the city seems to have been prosperous during Roman times
Kition
Cyprus
was an ancient Cypriot town near present-day Lampousa and Karavas. Nonnus claimed the name derived from an eponymous Lapathus, a follower of Dionysus. The name of the place became synonymous with stupidity
Lapethos
Cyprus
Divided into Old and New cities
Old city was the Site of a major cult of Aphrodite, the Greeks believed that the goddess had emerged from the sea at the site of this particular city. According to the biblical Acts of the Apostles, after landing at Salamis and proclaiming the Word of God in the synagogues, the prophets and teachers, Barnabas and Saul of Tarsus, traveled along the entire southern coast of the island of Cyprus until they reached this city. Once there, Sergius Paulus, the Roman proconsul, was converted after Saul rebuked the Sorcerer Elymas.
Paphos
Cyprus
According to tradition, the founder of the city was Teucer, son of Telamon, king of the Greek island of S......, who could not return home after the Trojan war because he had failed to avenge his brother Ajax. Although the city ceased to be the capital of Cyprus from the Hellenistic period onwards, its wealth and importance did not diminish. The city was particularly favored by the Roman emperors Trajan and Hadrian, who restored and established its public buildings.
Salamis
Cyprus
was a city-kingdom in ancient Cyprus, one of the ten kingdoms of Cyprus. It was situated in the great central plain of the island, south-east of Soli, on the road from Soli to Tremithus
Tamassus
Lebanon/Phoenice
In 14 BC, during the reign of Herod the Great, this city became an important Roman colonia, it later was considered the most Roman city in the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire. It was one of four Roman colonies in the Syria-Phoenicia region and the only one with full Ius Italicum (meaning: exemption from imperial taxation).Was a city of nearly 50,000 inhabitants during the reign of Trajan and had a huge forum and necropolis. The Berytian law school was widely known in the Roman Empire and two of Rome's most famous jurists Papinian and Ulpian taught there under Severus.
Berytus
Lebanon/Phoenice
is believed to have been first occupied between 8800 and 7000 BC[1] and continuously inhabited since 5000 BC, making it one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It was in this city that the Phoenician alphabet, likely the ancestor of the Greek, Latin and all other Western alphabets, was developed. During the Greco-Roman period, the temple of Resheph was elaborately rebuilt, and the city, though smaller than its neighbors was a center for the cult of Adonis.
Byblos
Lebanon/Phoenice
Present day city of Acre, Around 37 BC, the Romans conquered the Hellenized Phoenician port-city called Akko. It became a colony in southern Roman Phoenicia. The city stayed Roman for nearly seven centuries until 636 AD, when was conquered by the Muslim Arabs
Ptolemais
Lebanon/Phoenice
was one of the most important Phoenician cities, and it may have been the oldest. From there and other ports, a great Mediterranean commercial empire was founded. It was also from here that a colonizing party went to found the city of Tyre. Tyre also grew into a great city, and in subsequent years there was competition between the two, each claiming to be the metropolis ('Mother City') of Phoenicia. When the city fell under Roman domination, it continued to mint its own silver coins. The Romans also built a theater and other major monuments in the city. In the reign of Elagabalus, a Roman colony was established there.
Sidon
Lebanon/Phoenice
one of the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for over 4,700 years, became the leading city of the Phoenician civilization in 969 BC with the reign of king Hiram I, under Roman rule the city continued to maintain much of its commercial importance. Apart from purple dye, the production of linen became a main industry in the city. When in Septimius Severus and Pescennius Niger competed against each other for the throne of Rome in 193 CE, the city sided with Severus, who was born in the city's former colony LM. Niger's troops in retaliation looted the city and killed many of its inhabitants.
Tyros
Lebanon/Phoenice
Evidence of settlement in Tripoli dates back as early as 1400 BCE. In the 9th century, the Phoenicians established a trading station in Tripoli and later, under Persian rule, the city became the center of a confederation of the Phoenician city-states. During the Roman and Byzantine period, the city witnessed the construction of important public buildings including municipal stadium or gymnasium due to strategic position of the city midway on the imperial coastal highway leading from Antioch to Ptolemais.
Tripolis
Syria/Phoenice Libanensis
is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. First settled in the 3rd millennium BC. In 64 BC, the Roman general Pompey annexed the western part of Syria. The Romans occupied the city and subsequently incorporated it into the league of ten cities known as the Decapolis. It became a metropolis by the beginning of the 2nd century and in 222 it was upgraded to a colonia by the Emperor Septimius Severus. During the Pax Romana, the city and the Roman province of Syria in general began to prosper. The city's importance as a caravan city was evident with the trade routes from southern Arabia, Palmyra, Petra, and the silk routes from China all converging on it.
Damascus
Phoenice Libanensis/Lebanon
Modern city of Baalbek, its name meant meaning "Sun City" in reference to the solar cult there. It is mentioned on coins of nearly every emperor from Nerva to Gallienus. The city was so noted for its hostility to the Christians that Alexandrians were banished to it as a special punishment.
Heliopolis
Syria/Phoenice Libanensis
By the third century, it had become a prosperous regional center. It reached the apex of its power in the 260s, when King Odaenathus defeated the Sasanian emperor Shapur I. The king was succeeded by queen regent Zenobia, who rebelled against Rome and established the Palmyrene Empire. In 273, Roman emperor Aurelian destroyed the city, which was later restored by Diocletian at a reduced size.
Palmyra
Syria/Arabia
was the first Nabatean city in the 2nd century BC. The Nabatean Kingdom, including this city was conquered by Cornelius Palma, a general of Trajan, in 106 AD. Under the Roman Empire, the city was renamed and was the residence of the legio III Cyrenaica. It was made capital of the Roman province of Arabia Petraea. The city flourished and became a major metropolis at the juncture of several trade routes, namely the Via Traiana Nova, a Roman road that connected Damascus to the Red Sea. It became an important center for food production and during the reign of Emperor Philip the Arab, the city began to mint its own coins. The two Councils of Arabia were held here in 246 and 247 AD.
Bostra
Jordan/Arabia
one of the best preserved Greco-Roman cities, which earned it the nickname of "Pompeii of the Middle East" In the second half of the 1st century AD, the city achieved great prosperity. In AD 106, the Emperor Trajan constructed roads throughout the province, and more trade came to the city. The Emperor Hadrian visited the city in AD 129–130. The triumphal arch (or Arch of Hadrian) was built to celebrate his visit. Modern city of Jerash
Gerasa
Jordan/Arabia
In the 3rd century BC, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt, rebuilt the city and renamed it, making it a regional center of Hellenistic culture. Under Roman rule, Philadelphia was one of the ten Greco-Roman cities of the Decapolis before being directly ruled as part of Arabia Petraea province.
Philadelphia
Israel/Palaestina I
Modern City of Ashkelon
Until the conquest of Alexander the Great, the city's inhabitants were influenced by the dominant Persian culture. It is in this archaeological layer that excavations have found dog burials. It is believed the dogs may have had a sacred role; however, evidence is not conclusive. After the conquest of Alexander in the 4th century BCE, the city was an important free city and Hellenistic seaport. It had mostly friendly relations with the Hasmonean kingdom and Herodian kingdom of Judea
Askalon
Israel/ Palaestina I
was a Roman and Byzantine city in Syria Palaestina, some 53 km southwest of Jerusalem. Its remains still straddle the ancient road connecting Jerusalem to Gaza and are now located within the Beit Guvrin National Park. Septimius Severus gave it a name meaning "City of the Free". It became one of the most important cities in the Roman province of Syria Palaestina.
Eleutheropolis
Palestine/Palaestina I
Rebuilt after it was incorporated into the Roman Empire in 63 BCE under the command of Pompey Magnus, the city then became a part of the Roman province of Judaea.] It was targeted by Jewish forces during their rebellion against Roman rule in 66 and was partially destroyed. Nevertheless, throughout the Roman period, the city prosperous and received grants and attention from several emperors. Later, it was the first city in Palestine to be conquered by the Muslim Rashidun army and quickly developed into a center of Islamic law.
Gaza
Israel/Palaestina I
This city is known for its association with the biblical stories of Jonah, Solomon and Saint Peter as well as the mythological story of Andromeda and Perseus, and later for its oranges. During the First Jewish–Roman War, Jaffa was captured and burned by Cestius Gallus. The Roman Jewish historian Josephus writes that 8,400 inhabitants were massacred. Pirates operating from the rebuilt port incurred the wrath of Vespasian, who razed the city and erected a citadel in its place, installing a Roman garrison there
Ioppe
Israel/Palaestina
was a Roman colony founded during Emperor Hadrian's trip to Judah in 129/130, centered around Jerusalem, which had been almost totally razed after the siege of 70 CE. The foundation of this city and the construction of a temple to Jupiter at the site of the former temple may have been one of the causes for the outbreak of the Bar Kokhba revolt in 132.
Aelia Capitolina
Palestine/Palaestina I
History stretches' over a thousand years, was the site of a battle fought between the victorious Ptolemy IV and Antiochus III. This battle is said to be one of the largest battles ever fought in the Levant, with over a hundred thousand soldiers and hundreds of elephants.
The town was conquered by Alexander Yannai and held by the Hasmoneans until it was rebuilt in the time of Pompey and Gabinius; the latter seems to have done the actual work of restoration for the era of the town dates from 57 BCE.
Raphia
Israel/Palaestina II
was an ancient city in the Sharon plain on the coast of the Mediterranean, now in ruins and included in an Israeli national park. For centuries it was a major intellectual hub of the Mediterranean and cultural capital of Palestine. It later became the provincial capital of Roman Judea, Roman Syria Palaestina and Byzantine Palaestina Prima provinces. The city was populated throughout the 1st to 6th centuries AD and became an important early centre of Christianity during the Byzantine period. Its importance may have waned starting during the Muslim conquest of 640 in the early Middle Ages.
Caesarea Maritima
Israel/Palaestina II
After the region came under Roman rule, the city gained imperial free status and was the leading city of the Decapolis. Later, under Byzantine rule, it served as the capital of Palaestina Secunda. The city flourished under the "Pax Romana", as evidenced by high-level urban planning and extensive construction, including the best preserved Roman theatre of ancient Samaria, as well as a hippodrome, a cardo and other trademarks of the Roman influence
Scythopolis
Israel/Palaestina II
was founded sometime around 20 CE in the Herodian Tetrarchy of Galilee and Peraea by the Roman client king Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great. Herod Antipas made it the capital of his realm in the Galilee and named it after the Roman Emperor Tiberius.It was at first a strictly pagan city, but later became populated mainly by Jews, with its growing spiritual and religious status exerting a strong influence on balneological practices
Tiberias
Israel/Palaestina III
was founded in the 1st century BCE as trade post between P.... and G... . Also based on agriculture, it continued to develop over time. When its trade with the Roman occupation waned, the city developed a lucrative trade breeding fine horses, notably, the renowned Arabian horse. During the Byzantine period the city received support from the authorities as a frontier city until the time of Justinian I. When this funding ceased, the city went into decline and had practically ceased to exist by the middle of the 6th century C.E
Mampsis
Jordan/Palaestina III
A town ancient Jordan, it is a former bishopric and present Latin Catholic titular see.
In the Byzantine period, the city was the site of a Jewish community numbered at 15,000 people, centered around a spectacular synagogue, then said to be comparable to Solomon's Temple.
Areopolis
Syria/Palaestina III
Petra
Bulgaria/Moesia Inferior
an impressive Roman walled city and one of the biggest urban centres in the province of Moesia Inferior. Its remains are in the Archaeological Park of Razgrad. Site of a disastrous Roman defeat and the death of the Emperor Decius and his son Herennius Etruscus
Abritus
Bulgaria/Moesia Inferior
became an important military center of the Roman province of Moesia, and grew into a city at the time of Marcus Aurelius. Later became the seat of a Christian bishopric and a center of Christianity in the region.
Dorostorum
Bulgaria/Moesia Inferior
Roman Emperor Trajan renamed the ancient city of Parthenopolis after the Second Dacian War, which ended in 106. The city was renamed after Trajan's sister, Ulpia Marciana.An important strategic center, the city was part of Roman Thrace until 187–193, and then belonged to Moesia inferior.. During Emperor Valens' conflict with the Goths (366–369), it was a temporary capital of the empire and the largest city of Thrace
Marcianopolis
Bulgaria/Moesia Inferior
The first inhabitants of the town were the Thracian tribe of the Meldi, presently the city of Lovech
Melta
Bulgaria/Moesia Inferior
An important Greek city in ancient Thrace. It was situated on the coast of the Euxine and at the foot of Mount Haemus. The town fell under Roman rule in 71 BCE, yet continued to enjoy privileges such as the right to mint its own coinage
Mesembria
Bulgaria/Moesia Inferior
was initially one of the few great Roman legionary fortresses along the empire's border, forming part of the defenses (limes Moesia) along the Danube in northern Bulgaria. The most prosperous times for this city, as well as for the province, were during the Severan dynasty
Novae
Bulgaria/Moesia Inferior
It ] is one of the oldest ancient settlements in Bulgaria. It was established in the second quarter of the sixth century BC (585–550 BC) by Miletian Greeks at a present at that time Thracian settlement. At the end of the 4th c. BC the city became one of the strongholds of the Diadochi Lysimachus. The city became very prosperous from this time due to strong sea trade with many of the Mediterranean states and cities supported by a wide range of local products. Modern city of Varna.
Odessos
Bulgaria/Thracia
The Bulgars called the town Tuthom, though its more common name in Bulgarian was Анхиало, Anhialo based on the Greek name. During the Ottoman rule, the town was called Ahyolu. Constantine the Great's reforms restored the city's prosperity for a while, as the city's proximity to the new capital of Constantinople made Anchialos a key food supply center
Anchialus
Bulgaria/Thracia
The city was renamed Ulpia Augusta Traiana in honor of emperor Trajan. The city grew to its largest extent under Marcus Aurelius (161-180) and became the second most important city in the Roman province of Thrace after Philippopolis (Trimontium). Its status and importance is evidenced by the visits of several emperors including Septimius Severus (193-211), Caracalla (211-217), and Diocletian (294-305) Now known as Stara Zagora
Beroe
Bulgaria/Thracia
In 341 BC the town was founded or refounded by Philip II of Macedon, who fortified it; subsequently, the town became a polis. In 71 BC it became part of the Roman Empire after being conquered by Marcus Lucullus and after 45 BC it was included in the Roman province of Thracia.
Kabyle
Bulgaria/Thracia
Modern city of Plovdiv.
the city was seized by the Roman general Marcus Lucullus during the Third Mithridatic War but was soon restored to Thracian control. The city was an important crossroad for the Roman Empire and was called "the largest and most beautiful of all cities" by Lucian. Although it was not the capital of the Province of Thrace at this time , the city was the largest and most important center in the province. In about 250, a long siege by the Goths led by their ruler Cniva commenced. After betrayal by a disgruntled citizen who showed them where to scale the walls, the city was burned and 100,000 of its citizens died or were taken captive.
Philippopolis
Bulgaria/Thrace
In modern times it is known as Sofia, Roman emperors Aurelian (215–275) and Galerius (260–311) were born here, became a significant political and economical center, more so as it became one of the first Roman cities where Christianity was recognized as an official religion (under Galerius)
Serdica
Bulgaria/Dacia Mediterranea
is one of the great ancient cities of Thrace, now located in Kyustendil, Bulgaria. It was a settlement of the Dentheletae, a Thracian tribe, and had been occupied since at least the Iron Age. During the reign of Emperor Aurelian, it was was the third largest city in Dacia Mediterranea — after the above city and Naissus.
Pautalia
Bulgaria/Dacia Ripensis
After the division of Moesia in 86 AD, the city became the principal city of Upper Moesia.[4]
After the conquest of Dacia, the castrum was abandoned and the settlement became a colonia within Moesia Superior. Later either Aurelian or Diocletian made this city the capital of Dacia Ripensis
Ratiaria
Bulgaria/Scythia Minor
was a large Late Roman fortified city in Scythia Minor/Moesia, located near today's Abrit, Bulgaria ,It was originally an ancient Thracian settlement from around the 8th century BC.
Zaldapa
North Macedonia/Dardania
It was the largest and most significant city of Paionia, mentioned in the records of Polybius and Titus Livius. They emphasize its strategic geographic position as a frontier of the northern border of Macedonia against the Dardanians
Bylazora
North Macedonia/Macedonia II Salutaris
Name means "a precious stone that emits light", it was located along the Via Egnatia, which connected the Adriatic port Dyrrachion (present-day Durrës) with Byzantium.
Lychnidos
North Macedonia/Dardania
A Roman military camp was founded here in the second century BC on the site of an older Dardanian settlement. It became later Colonia Flavia Aelia S.... and many veteran legionnaires were settled there. A Roman town was founded in the time of Domitian (AD 81–96) and the city became the chief center for Romanizing Dardania. It was abandoned in AD 518 after an earthquake destroyed the city.
Scupi
North Macedonia/Macedonia II Salutaris
as an ancient town of Paeonia, later conquered by Macedon, and finally turned into the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia Salutaris. Late in the 5th century the city underwent a terrible turn of events. In 479, it was robbed by Theodoric, an Ostrogothic king. The citizens reconstructed the city, but in 518 it was struck by a powerful earthquake.
Stobi
Romania/Dacia Apulensis
In modern times it is is a commune in Caraș-Severin County, Banat, Romania with a population of 4,165 people. It is mentioned on the Tabula Peutingeriana and is the site of the Roman fort Bersobis
Bersovia
Romania/Dacia Apulensis
Site of the Ram Fortress. The Ram Fortress is situated on a steep slope on the right bank of the River Danube. The place first finds its reference in Trajanic times as a settlement where the cavalry units were stationed.
Lederata
Romania/Dacia Apulensis
named after the ruined capital and the most important military, religious and political center of the Dacians, Had a population between 20,000 and 25,000 and strong fortifications, served as the political, administrative and religious center of Roman Dacia in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.
Sarmizegetusa
Romania/Dacia Apulensis
was a Dacian town mentioned by Ptolemy, later a Roman castra and municipium. The ruins of the ancient settlement are located in Jupa,
Tibiscum
Romania/Dacia Maluensis
Contains the remains of the celebrated Trajan's Bridge, the largest in the Empire. Built in only three years (AD 103–105) by the famous architect Apollodorus of Damascus, the bridge was considered the most daring work in the Roman world. In the middle of the 3rd century, the covered an area of 60 hectares and had a population of almost 40,000 inhabitants
Drobeta
Romania/Dacia Maluensis
was an ancient city in Roman Dacia, later the village of Reşca, Dobrosloveni Commune, capital of Dacia Maluensis. It received the title of Municipium during the rule of Hadrian (117–138) and the title of colonia during that of Septimius Severus (193–211).
The city had two belts of fortifications and two castra, where soldiers of the Legiones VII Claudia and XXII Primigenia were temporarily stationed, alongside a permanent unit (numerus) of Syrian archers.
Romula
Romania/Dacia Porolissensis
After Dacia became a province of the Roman Empire, the capital of Dacia Apulensis was established here. It was the largest city in Roman Dacia and was the seat of the XIII Gemina Legion. The city is the largest castrum located in Romania, occupying 37.5 hectares (93 acres) (750 x 500) Modern city of Alba Iulia
Apulum
Romania/Dacia Porolissensis
A gold mining settlement has existed in the area since Roman times, when it was known as a municipium, modern town of Zlatna
Ampelum
Romania/Dacia Porolissensis
became a provincial capital of Dacia Porolissensis and thus the seat of a procurator. The colonia was abandoned in 274 by the Roman administration. During the Migrations Period, the city was overrun and destroyed.
Napoca
Romania/Dacia Porolissensis
Initially a castra and later a settlement in the Roman province of Dacia
Optatiana
Romania/Dacia Porolissensis
Emperor Trajan established a military stronghold at the site to defend the main passageway through the Carpathian mountains. The fort, initially built of wood on stone foundations, was garrisoned with 5000 auxiliary troops transferred from Spain, Gaul and Britain. When Hadrian created the new province Dacia Porolissensis (named for the now sizable city) in 124, it became the administrative center of the province. Under emperor Septimius Severus, the city was granted municipium status, allowing its leaders and merchants to act independently.
Porolissum
Romania/Dacia Porolissensis
Present city of Turda, The castrum established was given the same name as the city and became a municipium, then a colonia. Potaissa was the basecamp of the Legio V Macedonica from 166 to 274. After the Aurelian retreat of 270, it became uninhabited and was destroyed in the first wave of migration to the territory.
Potaissa
Romania/Moesia Inferior
was a Dacian town in Moesia Inferior, today's Dunăreni, Constanţa, Romania
Sagadava
Romania/Moesia Inferior
The first Christian Basilica established in Romania can be found there and the foot of a Roman bridge over the Danube built by Constantine the Great to link the city with Oescus (today in Bulgaria, in Moesia), in order to start the reconquest of Dacia. There is also a secret underground fountain which flows under the walls of the town to a water spring situated outside.
Sucidava
Romania/Scythia Minor
Modern town of Cernavoda, was founded by the ancient Greeks in the 4th century BC as a trading post for contacts with local Dacians.
Axiupolis
Romania/Scythia Minor
was an important Geto-Dacian center on the right bank of the Danube. After the Roman conquest, it became a civil and military center. After the Roman conquest of Dacia, the areas importance convinced the Romans to establish a military station as well as to settle and develop a civil center.
Capidava
Romania/Scythia Minor
The Vlachs called it Tomisovara and the Greeks called it Panglicara. From the 16th century the town had acquired its present name, Mangalia. Throughout the 2nd century AD, the city built defensive fortifications and the minting of coinage under the Roman emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla continued. Callatis suffered multiple invasions in the 3rd century AD but recovered in the 4th century AD to regain its status as an important trade hub and port city
Callatis
Bulgaria/Scythia Minor
It was founded as a Thracian settlement in was founded still in V century BC, but was later colonised by the Ionian ancient Greeks and given the name Cruni or Krounoi (Κρουνοί). It was named Krounoi from the nearby founts of water. Later renamed after the discovery of a statue of Dionysus in the sea.
Dionysopolis
Romania/Scythia Minor
Now the city of Constanta,s the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania, founded around 600 BC, and among the oldest in Europe. The foundation of the city was ascribed to Tomyris, the queen of the Massagetae (the origin and deeds of the Goths) who named the city after herself. In the time of Diocletian, it was the metropolis of Scythia Minor. The poet Ovid was exiled here by Augustus and refers to the city as a town located in a war-stricken cultural wasteland on the remotest margins of the empire.
Tomis
Romania/Scythia Minor
was an ancient Roman legionary fortress, a major site situated on the Danube and forming a key part of the Limes Moesiae frontier system
Troesmis
Romania/Moesia II
was founded by the Romans during the rule of Trajan as a mining town, with Illyrian colonists from South Dalmatia. The earliest reference to the town is on a wax tablet dated 6 February 131
Alburnus Major
Romania/Moesia II
became an important military center of the Roman province of Moesia, and grew into a city at the time of Marcus Aurelius. The Roman general Flavius Aëtius was born in the town in 396.
Durostorum
Ukraine/Moesia II
was first settled either by the Nuragics or by Phoenicians, according to the archaeological findings. It contains ruins from the Nuragic era to the Roman era, when it was an important port, and the Middle Ages, when it was the capital of the Giudicato of Gallura, one of the four independent states of Sardinia. During the First Punic War, the Romans fought against the Carthaginians and the Sardinians near the city, where the general Hanno died in battle
Olbia
Ukraine/Bosporan Kingdom
The ancient city is located on the shore of the Black Sea on the outskirts of present-day Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula. During much of the classical period, Chersonesus operated as a democracy ruled by a group of elected archons and a council called the Demiurgoi. As time passed, the government grew more oligarchic, with power concentrated in the hands of the archons.
Chersonesus
Russia/Bosporan Kingdom
It was originally a major seaport (Sinda) and then the capital of Sindica. The city was built on the site of Sinda in the 6th century BCE by Pontic Greeks, who named it after a king of the Cimmerian Bosporus. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE, it flourished as part of the Bosporan Kingdom, as did its guild of shipowners,
Gorgippia
Ukraine/Bosporan Kingdom
was an ancient Greek city on the eastern shore of Crimea, which the Greeks called Taurica. The city lay on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus, and was founded by Milesians in the late 7th or early 6th century BC, on a hill later named Mount Mithridat. Its ruins now lie in the modern city of Kerch. Mithridates VI Eupator committed suicide here after the city's citizens and his son Pharnaces turned against him.
Panticapaeum
Russia/Bosporan Kingdom
was the largest ancient Greek city on the Taman peninsula, spread over two plateaus along the eastern shore of the Cimmerian Bosporus. During the Mithridatic Wars, the town allied with the Roman Republic and withstood a siege by the army of Pharnaces II of Pontus. It was at this city that the insurrection broke out against Mithridates VI of Pontus, shortly before his death; and his sons, who held the citadel, were obliged to surrender to the insurgents. The loyalty to Rome allowed the city to maintain a dominant position in the region until the 4th century, when it was sacked and destroyed by the invading Huns
Phanagoria
Ukraine/Bosporan Kingdom
The site for the city, ruled by an archon, was at the eastern edge of the territory of the kings of Bosporus. A major shift in social emphasis is represented in the archaeological site when the propylaea gate that linked the port section with the agora was removed, and the open center of public life was occupied by a palatial dwelling in Roman times for the kings of Bosporus
Tanais
Ukraine/Bosporan Kingdom
a town of regional significance in the Crimea on the coast of the Black Sea. Noted for its rich agricultural lands, on which its trade depended, the city was destroyed by the Huns in the 4th century AD.
Theodosia
Egypt/Aegyptus
Is the second largest city in Egypt, and the largest city on the Mediterranean coast. Founded in c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great. . During the Hellenistic period, it was home to the Lighthouse (Pharos), which ranked among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, as well as a storied Library. The was the intellectual and cultural center of the ancient Mediterranean for much of the Hellenistic age and late antiquity. It was at one time the largest city in the ancient world before being eventually overtaken by Rome.
Alexandria
Egypt/Aegyptus
It is also known as the birthplace of Amenhotep, son of Hapu, who gained considerable recognition and prestige in his time as a public official, architect, and scribe for pharaoh Amenhotep III .During the middle Ptolemaic era and up to the 3rd century AD, Athribis was a busy town that had a large bathhouse, villas, and industrial buildings as well.
Athribis
Egypt/Aegyptus
was the chief town of the Ati nome in Egypt. It stood east of Sais, near the Phatnitic mouth on the western bank of the Damietta Branch of the Nile. The city's pharaonic name was Djedu.It was regarded as one of the birthplaces of the god of the underworld Osiris
Busiris
Egypt/Aegyptus
The goddess Wadjet, often represented as a cobra, was the patron deity of Lower Egypt and her oracle was located in her renowned temple in this area .It served as the capital, or according to Herodian, merely the principal village of the Nile Delta
Buto
Egypt/Aegyptus
About 1200 BC, during the New Kingdom of Egypt, it was named Paiuenamun, meaning "The Island of the god] Amun, although renamed, the city was continuously occupied until the 6th century A.D., when it was an ancient Roman city
Diospolis Inferior
Egypt/Aegyptus
was the first and, for much of its early history, the only permanent Greek colony in Egypt, serving as a symbiotic nexus for the interchange of Greek and Egyptian art and culture. Later became an important center of Greek culture under the Roman Empire, producing several celebrated orators of the Second Sophistic in the second and early third centuries AD
Naucratis
Egypt/Aegyptus
was an ancient Egyptian city in the Western Nile Delta on the Canopic branch of the Nile, known by the ancient Egyptians as Sꜣw.
The city's patron goddess was Neith, whose cult is attested as early as the First Dynasty of Egypt (c. 3100–3050 BC).The Greeks, such as Herodotus, Plato, and Diodorus Siculus, identified her with Athena and hence postulated a primordial link to Athens.
Sais
Egypt/Augustamnica
notable as a center of worship for the feline goddess Bastet, and therefore the principal depository in Egypt of mummies of cats. Its ruins are located in the suburbs of the modern city of Zagazig.
Bubastis
Egypt/Augustamnica
was founded or rebuilt by Emperor Trajan in the second century AD to protect travellers and merchants as it lay at the junction of roads from Sinai, Palestine, and Egypt. The Plague of Justinian likely first entered the Roman Empire through this cities port
Clysma
Egypt/Augustamnica
One of the oldest cities in Egypt, it was principally notable as the cult center of the sun god Atum, in Greek its name means "City of the Sun
Heliopolis
Egypt/Augustamnica
large city east of the Nile Delta, situated near the mouth of the Royal Canal which connected the Nile with the Red Sea, Hebrew name was Pithom
Heroonpolis
Egypt/Augustamnica
name means "city of lions" which was given on account of the presence of temples to the lioness goddesses Bast and Sekhmet. Later the capital of the province of Augustamnica Secunda
Leontopolis
Egypt/Augustamnica
The city was formerly a center of worship of the deity Khenty-irty or Khenty-khem, a form of the god Horus, Egyptian name was Khem
Letopolis
Egypt/Augustamnica
Easternmost major city of Lower Egypt, situated upon the easternmost bank of the Nile, the Ostium Pelusiacum, to which it gave its name, in 48 BC Pompey the Great was murdered near here,
Pelusium
Egypt/Augustamnica
hometown of Nectanebo II the last native pharaoh of Egypt, home to a temple dedicated to the local god Anhur and his lioness goddess mate Mehit
Sebennytos
Egypt/Augustamnica
After Pi-Ramesses' abandonment, it became the seat of power of the pharaohs of the 21st Dynasty, and later of the 22nd Dynasty. The city experienced a new phase of building development which endured during the Ptolemaic Period. It remained populated until its abandonment in Roman times
Tanis
Egypt/Arcadia
It was a cult place for Hathor, who was here identified with Wadjet. The Greeks identified Hathor with Aphrodite
Aphroditopolis
Egypt/Arcadia
Under the Ptolemaic Kingdom, the city was for a while called Ptolemais Euergétis, Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309–246 BC) renamed the city after his sister
Arsinoe
Egypt/Arcadia
first came to prominence and reached its apogee of power during the First Intermediate Period, between 2181 and 2055 BC. Eventually after the collapse of the Old Kingdom, Egypt was divided into Upper and Lower Egypt. It became the principal city of Lower Egypt and was able to exercise its control over much of the region
By the Ptolemaic Kingdom (332–30 BC), it was was still an important religious and cultural center in Egypt. The Greek rulers of this period, in an attempt to find connections and comparisons between their own gods and the gods of the land that they were now ruling, associated Haryshef with Heracles in the interpretatio graeca,
Herakleopolis
Egypt/Arcadia
According to legends related in the early third century BC by Manetho, a priest and historian who lived in the Ptolemaic Kingdom during the Hellenistic period of ancient Egypt, the city was founded by King Menes. It was the capital of ancient Egypt (Kemet or Kumat) during the Old Kingdom and remained an important city throughout ancient Egyptian history. was believed to be under the protection of the god Ptah, the patron of craftsmen. Its great temple, Hut-ka-Ptah (meaning "Enclosure of the ka of Ptah"), was one of the most prominent structures in the city.
Memphis
Egypt/Arcadia
was a city in Egypt situated on the left bank of the Nile, about forty-seven miles from the city directly above. It was an episcopal see that a suffragan of the metropolitan of Oxyrynchos, in the Roman province of Arcadia Aegypti, and is included as such in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees
Nilopolis
Egypt/Arcadia
Located west of the main course of the Nile on the Bahr Yussef, a branch that terminates in Lake Moeris and the Faiyum oasis. In ancient Egyptian times, there was a city on the site called Per-Medjed. In the Hellenistic period, the City was a prosperous regional capital, the third-largest city in Egypt. After Egypt was Christianized, it became famous for its many churches and monasteries. The city remained a prominent, though gradually declining, town in the Roman and Byzantine periods.
Oxyrynchus
Egypt/Libya Inferior
Started as a small fishing town during Ancient Egyptian times and the reign of Alexander The Great and was named Amunia. There are ruins of a temple for Ramesses II (1200 BC).After Egypt came under Roman rule, the town became an important harbor for trade and shipping goods and crops to Rome. In modern times it has become the city of Mersa Matruh
Paraetonium
Egypt/Thebais
named after its tutelary deity, the war god known by the Hellenized name Antaeus.
Antaeopolis
Egypt/Thebais
was a city founded at an older Egyptian village by the Roman emperor Hadrian to commemorate his deified young beloved, Antinoüs, on the east bank of the Nile, not far from the site in Upper Egypt where Antinoüs drowned in 130 AD. Hadrian proclaimed that games would be held at the city in Spring 131 in commemoration of Antinoüs. Known as the Antinoeia, they would be held annually for several centuries, being noted as the most important in Egypt.
Antinoopolis
Egypt/Thebais
it was the headquarters of the Legio II Trajana. Its inhabitants were enemies of the crocodile and its worshippers. The ancient city derived its principal reputation from two temples, which are considered second only to the Temple of Dendera as specimens of the sacred structures of Egypt
Apollonopolis Magna
Egypt/Thebais
It was founded in 275 BCE by Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285–246 BCE), who named it after his mother, Berenice I of Egypt. It was one of the critical way-stations for trade between India, Sri Lanka, Arabia, and Upper Egypt.
Berenice
Egypt/Thebais
The town was of importance in Hellenistic times, when it was the terminus of a caravan route to Berenice on the Red Sea. It was built up by Augustus, fell to the Blemmyes in the 3rd cent. AD, and was almost destroyed by Diocletian in AD 292. It was then reconstructed as a Roman City with many fortifications and Roman camps.
Coptos
Egypt/Thebais
was a city in Upper Egypt. Its Ancient Egyptian name was qjs (variant qsy), conventionally rendered Qis or Kis. It was a cult center for Hathor, and also contained a necropolis, Meir, which was used during the Middle Kingdom to hold the tombs of local aristocrats.
During the 5th century, the city was the settlement of Legio II Flavia Constantia.
Cusae
Egypt/Thebais
was a major city in antiquity, located near the boundary between Lower and Upper Egypt. The principal Egyptian deities worshipped at here were Typhon (Set) and Thoth. Typhon was represented by a hippopotamus, on which sat a hawk fighting with a serpent.
Hermopolis Magna
Egypt/Thebais
site of the Temple of Hibis, the largest and best preserved ancient Egyptian temple in the Kharga Oasis
Kysis
Egypt/Thebais
Its name is in honor of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus, the largest of the 52 species which inhabit the Nile. The site of the temple of Esna, dedicated to the god Khnum, his consorts Menhit and Nebtu, their son, Heka, and the goddess Neith, was remarkable for the beauty of its site and the magnificence of its architecture. The name of the emperor Geta, the last ruler that can be read in hieroglyphics, although partially erased by his brother and murderer Caracalla (212), is still legible on the city's walls
Latopolis
Egypt/Thebais
Its name means "wolf city" in Greek. A large Byzantine Treasure was discovered near the city in the early twentieth century and is now dispersed amongst a number of museums in the West. The hoard is composed of some of the most elaborate jewellery to survive from late antiquity.
Lycopolis
Egypt/Thebais
was known in Ancient Egypt as Ipu, The ithyphallic Min (whom the Greeks identified with Pan) was worshipped here as "the strong Horus.. Strabo mentions linen-weaving and stone-cutting as notable industries of the city.
Panopolis
Egypt/Thebais
It is the site of the Greco-Roman Temple of Dakka, dedicated to Thoth, the god of wisdom in the ancient Egyptian pantheon. The Temple of Dakka was transformed into a temple fortress by the Romans and surrounded by a stone wall, 270 by 444 metres long, with an entrance along the Nile
Pselchis
Egypt/Thebais
Home of the modern city of Aswan. Its name is supposed to have derived its name from an Egyptian goddess with the same name. Because the Ancient Egyptians oriented themselves toward the origin of the life-giving waters of the Nile in the south, and as the city was the southernmost town in the country, Egypt always was conceived to "open" or begin here
Syene
Egypt/Thebais
Home of the Dendera Temple complex, which contains the Temple of Hathor which dates back to July 54 BC, at the time of Ptolemy XII of the Ptolemaic dynasty, and was completed by the Roman emperor Tiberius. It is one of the best-preserved temples, if not the best-preserved one, in all of Upper Egypt.
Tentyra
Egypt/Thebais
known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 kilometers (500 mi) south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor.. It was a cult center and the most venerated city during many periods of ancient Egyptian history. Became part of the Roman province of Thebais, which later split into Thebais Superior, centered at the city, and Thebais Inferior. A Roman legion was headquartered in Luxor temple at the time of Roman campaigns in Nubia. Building did not come to an abrupt stop, but the city continued to decline
Thebae
Libya/Libya Superior
Modern city of Tobruk, Its name roughly meant "across from Pyrgos", referring to a location in Crete across the Mediterranean Sea. In the Roman era, the town became a Roman fortress guarding the Cyrenaican frontier.
Antipyrgus
Libya/Libya Superior
was founded by Greek colonists and became a significant commercial center in the southern Mediterranean. Served as a port for the city of C.... (city below)
Apollonia
Libya/Libya Superior
is an oasis town in the Al Wahat District in the Cyrenaica region of northeastern Libya. Since classical times it has been known as a place where high quality dates are farmed.
Augila
Libya/Libya Superior
was important enough in the Roman province of Libya Superior (Libya Pentapolitana; part of Cyrenaica) to become one of the suffragan sees in this province
Boreum
Libya/Libya Superior
was founded around 525 BC as a Greek colony; at the time, it was called either Euesperides or Hesperis, later became a Roman city and greatly prospered for 600 years. The city superseded the two cities below as the chief center of Cyrenaica after the 3rd century AD[24] and during the Persian attacks; in 642–643 -when was conquered by the Arabs and partially destroyed- it had dwindled to an insignificant village among magnificent historic ruins
Berenice
Libya/Libya Superior
appears to be originally a settlement of the Libyan tribe Barraci. Later, around 560 BC Greek settlers from Cyrene colonized it and it became very powerful. As a Greek city, it was part of the Cyrenaican Pentapolis
Barca
Libya/Libya Superior
It was the oldest and most important of the five Greek cities, known as the pentapolis, in the region. It gave eastern Libya the classical name Cyrenaica that it has retained to modern times. Located nearby is the ancient Necropolis. The famous "Venus of ......", a headless marble statue representing the goddess Venus was discovered by Italian soldiers here in 1913
Cyrene
Libya/Libya Superior
Founded by the Greeks and considered by some to be part of the Pentapolis of Cyrenaica, at a later period it became a Roman colony and was fortified by Justinian I.
Taucheira
Libya/Libya Superior
was part of the Libyan Pentapolis. Under Rome, it became a civil and later the religious metropolis of the province of Libya Secunda, or Libya Inferior, that is, the Marmarica region. In modern times was also the location of the famous Battle of Derna (1805), the first victory achieved by the United States Military on foreign soil during the 1st Barbary War
Darnis
Libya/Tripolitana
Originally a 7th-century BC Phoenician foundation, it was greatly expanded under Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (r. 193–211), who was born in the city. The 3rd Augustan Legion was stationed here to defend the city against Berber incursions. After the legion's dissolution under Gordian III in 238, the city was increasingly open to raids in the later part of the 3rd century. Diocletian reinstated the city as provincial capital, and it grew again in prosperity until it fell to the Vandals in 439.
Leptis Magna
Libya/Tripolitana
known as 'the pearl of the desert', stands in an oasis. It is one of the oldest pre-Saharan cities and an outstanding example of a traditional settlement. A permanent Roman garrison was established during the reign of Septimius Severus, and the emperor may have visited the settlement around AD 202. However, the Romans withdrew from the area a few decades later during the Crisis of the Third Century.
Cidamus
Libya/Tripolitana
Modern city of Tripoli, it is the only survivor of the Roman Tripolis. The city was founded in the 7th century BC by the Phoenicians, who gave it the Libyco-Berber name Oyat suggesting that the city may have been built upon an existing native Berber city.
Oea
Libya/Tripolitana
was the westernmost of the ancient "three cities" of Roman Tripolis, reached its monumental peak during the rule of the Severans, when it nearly doubled in size. The city was badly damaged by earthquakes during the 4th century, particularly the quake of 365. It fell under control of the Vandal kingdom in the 5th century, with large parts of the city being abandoned
Sabratha
Libya/Tripolitana
was a city founded by the Phoenicians about 3,000 years ago some 210 km east of the Libyan city of Tripoli. It was located near the present-day city of Misurata. Located on the Mediterranean Sea, it was used as a commercial station.
Thubactis
Algeria/Numidia
was the seat of a Christian bishopric. It was one of the key cities of the Donatist controversy. The city was protected after emperor Hadrian started the construction of a wall similar to the one with his name in Roman Britannia, by one of the sections of the Fossatum Africae: the Hodna or Bou Taleb section.
Zarai
Algeria/Mauritania Caesariensis
was a city populated mainly by Berbers under Septimius Severus, with a small Roman garrison. After the Vandal invasion in 429 AD, it became the capital of an independent Berber state
Altava
Algeria/Mauretania Caesariensis
probably took its name from the Berber pagan god "Auzius", because under Augustus a Roman castrum was founded near a small Berber village with that name The city constituted of a castrum (fort) and a vicus (small city): The city achieved autonomous status as Municipium in the second century. Achieved prosperity mainly because it was at the center of some roads in Roman Africa
Auzia
Algeria/Mauretania Caesariensis
is a former Ancient city and bishopric in Roman Africa, now a Latin Catholic titular see.
Its presumed location are the ruins at present Djemaa Saharidj in modern Algeria
Bida
Algeria/Mauritania Caesariensis
Considered to be one of the more loyal of Roman provincial capitals, the city grew under Roman rule in the 1st and 2nd century AD, soon reaching a population of over 30,000 inhabitants. In 44 AD, during the reign of Emperor Claudius it became the capital of the imperial province of Mauretania Caesariensis. The city was sacked by Berber tribes during a revolt in 371/372 AD, but recovered. In later centuries, the Roman population expanded, as did the Berber population, resulting in a mixed Berber and Roman population. The city was mostly Romanized under Septimius Severus and it grew to be a very rich city with nearly 100,000 inhabitants, In about 165 AD, it was the birthplace to the Roman Emperor Macrinus.
Caesarea Iol
Algeria/Mauritania Caesariensis
Was a town that belonged to the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis.
Its Bishop, Martialis was one of the Catholic bishops whom the Arian Vandal king Huneric summoned to Carthage in 484 and then exiled
Columnata
Algeria/Mauretania Caesariensis
Its name is a Latinization of the town's Punic name, which appears to have combined the elements ʾy (Punic: 𐤀‬𐤉‬) and ʾmn (𐤀‬𐤌𐤍‬), meaning "Strong Island" or "Peninsula of Strength". Under Roman rule, the city had the status of a native city in the province of Numidia.
Iomnium
Algeria/Mauretania Caesariensis
was located in the Aurès Mountains (part of the Atlas Mountains), at 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) above sea level, and has a cool Mediterranean climate: it was one of the coldest cities in Numidia. The fresh location was chosen by Roman legionaries to retire as veterans. Later, was one of the centers of Romano-berber resistance against the Arabs, under queen Kahina.
Mascula
Algeria/Mauretania Caesariensis
was a civitas of the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis. It has been tentatively identified with ruins near Relizane in modern Algeria. While the city flourished in late antiquity, it did not last long after the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb.
Mina
Algeria/Mauretania Caesariensis
Currently city is Ain Defla, During the time of the modern Algerian War it was located in a region of uneven terrain, which was considered so unstable and dangerous that it was declared a forbidden zone.
Oppidum Novum
Algeria/Mauretania Caesariensis
site of the modern city of Tlemcen, became a military outpost of Ancient Rome in the 2nd century CE. It was then an important city in the North Africa see of the Roman Catholic Church, where it was the center of a diocese. Its bishop, Victor, was a prominent representative at the Council of Carthage (411), and its bishop Honoratus was exiled in 484 by the Vandal king Huneric for denying Arianism.
Pomaria
Algeria/Mauritania Caesariensis
was originally a small Berber village, with Phoenician roots. It grew under the Roman empire. Around 120 AD, the emperor Hadrian erected an arch in the city.
Quiza
Algeria/Mauretania Caesariensis
The Romans built a fort in what is now Sour Djouab during the first century of their rule in Mauretania between Castellum Tingitanum (El Asnam) and A.... in order to expand their control of the interior of the region. Soon under Hadrian near the fort grew up a civilian settlement on the Roman road called the Nova Praetentura, which connected Numidia with Mauretania Tingitana. The city was later destroyed by Berber rebellions, but Diocletian restored the city that had even huge Roman thermae
Rapidum
Melilla/Mauritania Caesariensis
Pliny describes the city in the 1st-century as a native hillfort (oppidum) and port (portus).[ It was made a colony in AD 46. By the 3rd century, the city was fully Christianized and quite prosperous. In the 4th century, the city was the principal port for the Mauro-Roman kingdom.
Rusadir
Algeria/Mauretania Caesariensis
its name in Phoenician or Punic meant "Cape of the Strong One" or "Cape of the Fort"
its ruins include a necropolis and the ruins of baths, temples, and Roman-era embankments.
Rusazus
Algeria/Mauretania Caesariensis
as established as a colony along the trade route between the Strait of Gibraltar and Phoenicia. It consisted of a small fortress on Cape Matifou. It eventually fell under Carthaginian control, probably during the 6th century BC. After the Punic Wars, the area fell under Roman hegemony and Augustus established a colony there for the 9th Legion at some point during his reign.
Rusguniae
Algeria/Mauritania Caesariensis
became part of the Roman Empire about 42 CE with Claudius' annexation of the Kingdom of Mauretania, and was subsequently promoted to the rank of Municipium after the suppression of Aedemon's revolt. The town's regional importance in the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis was sufficient that inscriptions in the nearest towns were dedicated to the city's genius loci
Rusuccuru
Algeria/Mauritania Caesariensis
was a major Mediterranean port in the ancient Kingdom of Numidia. It was located at the western border of the territory of the Masaesyli, a Berber tribe. After a temporary decline, the city got some importance inside the Roman Africa, especially with African emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla
Siga
Algeria/Mauretania Caesariensis
Its bishop, Urbanus, was one of the Catholic bishops whom the Arian Vandal king Huneric summoned to a conference in Carthage in 484 and then exiled
Sufasar
Algeria/Mauretania Caesariensis
was an ancient Roman-Berber town and bishopric in Roman Africa. It was the home of Saint Typasius who was a veteran in the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis. Called to service by Maximian against the native Quinquegentiani, who were revolting against Roman rule, Typasius, who had become a Christian, refused to participate in this campaign
Tigava
Algeria/Mauritania Caesariensis
conquered by Ancient Rome, it was turned into a military colony by the emperor Claudius for the conquest of the kingdoms of Mauretania. Afterwards it became a Municipium called Colonia Aelia Augusta Tipasensium, that reached the population of 20,000 inhabitants in the fourth century.
Tipasa
Algeria/Mauretania Caesariensis
Located at the site of the modern commune of Saneg. It was founded by Septimius Severus in 205 AD in central-western Numidia. The city contains the ruins of a Roman villa dating back to its founding king, which bore the Latinized Berber name of Usinadis.
Uzinaza
Algeria/Mauretania Caesariensis
It is located in present-day Miliana, Algeria. belonged to the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis and was located 70 km south of the capital Caesarea, with a population of nearly 5,000 inhabitants
Zucchabar
Algeria/Mauritania Sitifensis
The modern site is home to Djemila a small mountain village in Algeria, near the northern coast east of Algiers, where some of the best preserved Roman ruins in North Africa are found. During the reign of Caracalla in the 3rd century, the city's administrators took down some of the old ramparts and constructed a new forum. They surrounded it with larger and more impressive edifices than those that bordered the old forum. The terrain hindered building, so that they built the theatre outside the town walls.
Cuicul
Algeria/Mauretania Sitifensis
.After the defeat of Jugurtha by Rome and its allies in 105 BC, the city came under direct Roman rule. It was turned into a Roman colony under Augustus in 33 BC, giving its people Roman citizenship. Once the Romans occupied the whole of North Africa, the city was administratively attached to the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis and later to Mauretania Sitifensis. In those years, the city grew to nearly 6,000 inhabitants and was very rich, with commerce to Italy and Iberia.
Igilgili
Algeria/Mauritania Sitifensis
was an important port city in the ancient Roman Empire, located at today's Béjaïa. It was generally a crossroads between eastern and western segments of Northern Africa. The city grew in size with new buildings and the emperor Vespasian settled the city with many Roman veterans, increasing its population and importance in the province of Mauretania Caesariensis, and when that was divided, in the new Late Roman province of Mauretania Sitifensis
Saldae
Algeria/Mauritania Sitifensis
It was founded in 97 AD, during the reign of Nerva, as a colony for Roman veterans. As the the city grew, around 297 AD, the province of Mauretania Sitifensis was established, with the city as its capital. Under the Vandals it was the chief town of a district called "Zaba". It was still the capital of a province (called "Mauretania Prima") under Byzantine rule and was then a place of strategic importance
Sitifis
Algeria/Mauritania Sitifensis
was a Roman colony founded by Augustus for military veterans and known for its olive oil.
Tubusuctu
Algeria/Mauretania Sitifensis
The city was founded soon after the arrival of the Romans around 200 AD under Septimius Severus' and became part of the province of Numidia. As a major settlement in the border region, it was significant even then. Its name was apparently bowdlerized by the Romans to Ad Piscīnam ("at the piscīna"), implying the presence of important waterworks.
Vescera
Algeria/Numidia
by the end of the 2nd century, the had nearly 50,000 inhabitants. In 303 AD, it was made the administrative capital of the newly created Numidia Cirtense, a small province. The city was destroyed after a siege by Rufius Volusianus, the praefectus praetorio of the augustus Maxentius. Constantine the Great rebuilt the city under his own name after 312 and made it the capital of all of Roman Numidia.
Cirta
Algeria/Numidia
Around 161/162 AD, during the governorship of D. Fonteius Frontinianus the city was granted the status of a Municipium. In 164/165 AD the legate C. Maesius Picatianus issued the construction of a memorial arch for the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. During these years, the city saw various construction and renovation measures, however, it is not entirely clear which actual buildings were subject to them. In 217, a triumphal arch was erected for the emperor Macrinus.
Diana Veteranorum
Algeria/Numidia
The camp of the third legion (Legio III Augusta), to which it owes its origin, appears to have been established here between AD 123–129, in the time of Roman emperor Hadrian. Under Septimius Severus Numidia was divided in two provinces: the north became Numidia Cirtensis, with capital at Cirta, while the south, which included the Aurès Mountains and was threatened by raids, became Numidia Militiana, "Military Numidia", with capital at this city.
Lambaesis
Algeria/Numidia
Together with C...., Collo and the city directly below, Milevum formed the Confederation known as the 'Four Colonies', the territory of which was very extensive. In the fourth century's second half, the city was fully Christian and had a population of nearly 15000 inhabitants.
Milevum
Algeria/Numidia
Modern city of Skikda, contained the largest Roman theatre in Algeria, dating to the reign of Hadrian. In late antiquity, the port was destroyed during the Vandals' invasion of 530. The Byzantines reconquered the region in 533 and 534, but left large areas under Berber control. The town was overrun by the Umayyad Caliphate at the end of the 7th century.
Rusicade
Algeria/Numidia
was founded ex nihilo as a military colony by the emperor Trajan around 100 CE. It was intended to serve primarily as a Roman bastion against the Berbers in the nearby Aures Mountains. It was originally populated largely by Roman veterans and had expanded to over 10,000 residents of Roman people, and even African colonists from other parts of the Roman Empire. The city enjoyed a peaceful existence for the first several hundred years and became a center of Christian activity starting in the 3rd century, and a Donatist center in the 4th century.
Thamugadi
Algeria/Numidia
During the reigns of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, notables of this city gained the highest office of the Imperial administration, Quintus Antistius Adventus Aquilinus Postumus, consul suffect about 167, and his son Lucius Antistius Burrus,] son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius And consul in 181.
Thibilis
Algeria/Zeugitana
as founded by the Phoenicians and called Malaka and was situated in the Berber kingdom of Numidia. When this area later came under Roman rule, the city was renamed. Later developed into a major urban center and became one of the granaries of Rome in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD. Under Septimius Severus, the City became one of the most prosperous in the Roman empire, with thermae and a huge theater
Calama
Algeria/Zeugitana
Sicca Veneria
Tunisia/Byzacena
Under Roman Emperor Vespasian (69–79) or Titus (79-81), it was elevated to the rank of municipium, and under the Severan dynasty (193-235) to that of colonia (Cillilana). It became Roman territory following the defeat of Carthage in 146 BC, belonging to the provinces of Africa, Africa Vetus, Africa Proconsularus, and finally Africa Byzacena following the reforms of Diocletian in 314 AD.
Cillium
Tunisia/Byzacena
was one of the most important communities in Roman North Africa because of the fertility of its hinterland (modern Tunisia's Sahel), which made it an important source of Rome's grain supply. It quarreled with its neighbor T....... over the temple of a goddess equated to Minerva, which stood on their shared border. At the end of the 3rd century, it became the capital of the new province of Byzacena
Hadrumentum
Tunisia/Byzacena
Established by the Numidians, grew rapidly, and under Masinissa developed into a major center of Numidia. Transformed into one of the richest cities in the province as a transit point for grain, oil, livestock, and textiles to four other cities
Mactaris
Tunisia/Byzacena
known as a castellum in the history of Roman-era Tunisia during the early Empire, and probably became a colonia about the time of Marcus Aurelius, who reigned between 161 and 180, as its name colonia Aurelia Sufetana indicates. It had been a bishopric since at least AD 255 but the majority of its inhabitants were still pagan. Punics formed the predominant population of towns and retained the Punic language until the 6th century
Sufes
Tunisia/Byzacena
Through the surrender of the Berber leader Tacfarinas, the region was pacified and populated under the Roman emperor Vespasian and his sons between 67 and 69, becoming a bishopric in the Roman province of Byzacena. Some inscriptions found in the city suggest that the settlement had success along the lines of others in North Africa during the 2nd century, reaching great prosperity through the olive industry,
Sufetula
Tunisia/Byzacena
was originally a civitas (town), within Byzacena during the Roman Empire. The town was also an ancient Christian bishopric, whose seat was resident in that Roman town. Its name means 'the fortified' place or settlement. It is uncertain whether the Greek name was given after a Greek settlement or by Phoenicians as part of their commercial and military settlements during the 4th century B.C.
Taparura
Tunisia/Byzacena
as founded as a Phoenician colony on the Mediterranean coast of what is now southeastern Tunisia. Along with the rest of ancient Tunisia, it passed into Carthaginian and then Roman control during the time of the Punic Wars.
Thaenae
Tunisia/Byzacena
was founded by the Phoenicians. It served as a waypoint on the trade routes between the Strait of Gibraltar and Phoenicia and as a market for the inland products of the area. During the Roman civil war, Julius Caesar defeated Metellus Scipio and the Numidian king Juba I here in a costly battle in 46 BC.
Thapsus
Tunisia/Byzacena
In the 6th century it became the residence of the military governor of Byzacena
Thelepte
Tunisia/Byzacena
was founded by the Romans in 75 AD near an old Berber village located next to the Aurès Mountains, in order to control the mountain region. Flourished under Septimius Severus reaching a population calculated in nearly 30,000 inhabitants, and was even an important Dioceses See.
Thevessa
Tunisia/Byzacena
Originally a small Carthaginian town,it was refounded as a Roman town and probably received some of Julius Caesar's veterans as settlers in 45 BC. Received a great deal of favor from African born Emperor Septimus Severus, The city had a huge racetrack (circus), nearly as large as the Circus Maximus at Rome and capable of accommodating about 30,000 spectators. and was a contender for second city of Roman North Africa.
Thysdrus
Tunisia/Byzacena
was a Roman town in the Maghreb founded by the Emperor Trajan around 100 CE, when he elevated it to a Municipium Its inhabitants enrolled in the Papiria tribe. It became a colonia by 270 CE
Thubursicum
Tunisia/Byzacena
its monuments attest to its prosperity in the period from the reign of Diocletian to that of Theodosius I, but it fell into a sort of stupor from the 4th century. The city appears to have experienced an early decline, as evidenced by the relatively poor remains of Christianity.
Thugga
Tunisia/Byzacena
Military veterans were sent to here, among other sites, by Augustus[ to allow them to start their post-army lives with land of their own. Its strategic location and access to trade routes made it an important establishment. Under Hadrian it was made a municipium, helping cause a growth in wealth, and Commodus made it a colony
Tuburbo Minus
Tunisia/Numidia
It was captured by Gaius Marius in 106 BC and destroyed, later becoming reestablished under the Punic-style magistracy of sufetes before being granted the status of a Roman colonia. It was an important city of Roman Africa near the Fossatum Africae. Roman cisterns are still evident in the city ruins.
Capsa
Tunisia/Tripolitana
was a town in the late Roman province of Tripolitania, which became a residential episcopal see. It corresponded to present-day Djorf-Bou-Ghara. The town was a prosperous source of grain from the rule of Nerva to Caracalla, and Antoninus Pius made the town a municipium.
Gigthis
Tunisia/Tripolitana
Modern city of Gabes, Strabo refers to this city as an important entrepot of the Lesser Syrtis. Pliny remarks that the waters of a copious fountain at this city were divided among the cultivators according to a system where each had the use of the water during a certain interval of time.
Tacapae
Tunisia/Zeugitana
The Romans assumed direct control in 46 BC, when Julius Caesar organized the province of Africa and rewarded the (perhaps simply neutral) conduct of the city during the recent civil war by making it a free city. Under Hadrian, it was raised to the status of a Roman colony and its citizens given full citizenship. Slowly lost importance under Byzantine rule. As elsewhere in the late empire, the local aristocracy found themselves in a position to increase the extent of their houses at the expense of public space:
Bulla Regia
Tunisia/Zeugitana
was one of the most important trading hubs of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the classical world. The legendary Queen Alyssa or Dido, is regarded as the founder of the city, though her historicity has been questioned. The ancient city was destroyed in the nearly-three year siege by the Roman Republic during the Third Punic War in 146 BC and then re-developed as a Roman city which became the major city in the province of Africa.
Carthage
Tunisia/Zeugitana
the town was founded by the Carthaginians as the fortified town of Aspis in the 5th century BC. The Siege of Aspis in 255 BC was the first African battle of the First Punic War.
Clipea
Tunisia/Zeugitana
Modern city of Bizerte
Hippo Diarrhytus
Tunisia/Zeugitana
was a city of Roman Africa, located at modern Henchir Lorbeus, Tunisia. The bishopric of the city in the Late Roman province of Africa Proconsularis was a suffragan of its capital Carthage's Metropolitan Archbishopric, but like most was to fade.
Lares
Tunisia/Zeugitana
was an important town in the Roman era, located along the Roman road that ran between Carthage and Tebessa, Towards the end of 2nd century BC the Roman general Gaius Marius settled his veterans here and at a later time it was elevated to the rank of a municipium by Julius Caesar or by Marcus Aurelius. The ancient Roman town lost its appearance when the Byzantines transformed it into a stronghold during their struggles against the Vandals.
Musti
Tunisia Zeugitana
The town is known for its quarries, where one of the most precious types of marbles in the Roman Empire, the antique yellow marble, was exploited. With the city's ruins dating from over a period of 1,500 years, the site covers over 80 hectares of area pending further excavations.
Simitthus
Tunisia/Zeugitana
Although older sources placed the city within the Roman province of Numidia, recent ones agree on placing it in the Roman province of Africa, known also as Africa Proconsularis. The rebellious Roman official Gildo, the brother of Firmus, committed suicide here. Under the Vandal king Gaiseric, the town had a monastery for men and a convent for women.
Thabraca
Tunisia/Zeugitana
, was originally a Punic town, later founded as a Roman veteran colony by Augustus in 27 BC. Military veterans were sent to the city, among other sites, by Augustus to allow them to start their post-army lives with land of their own. Its strategic location and access to trade routes made it an important establishment. The town was a productive grower of grain, olives, and fruit. Under Hadrian it was made a Municipium, helping cause a growth in wealth, and Commodus made it a colony.
Thuburbo Maius
Tunisia/Zeugitana
After Carthage's loss to Rome in the Punic Wars, the city became an important Roman colony for seven centuries. As a result of the war, Rome created a new province of Africa, and this city became its capital, which meant that the governor's residence was there along with a small garrison. Over the following decades the city also attracted Roman citizens who settled there to do business. During the Roman Civil War between the supporters of Pompey and Caesar, a battle was fought between Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio and Pompeian legionaries commanded by Publius Attius Varus supported by Numidian cavalry and foot soldiers Curio defeated the Pompeians and Numidians and drove Varus back into the town but then withdrew
Utica
Tunisia/Zeugitana
was a town in the province of Africa Proconsularis, now northern Tunisia.
The city became a Roman colony of veterans of Legio XIII Gemina during the reign of Emperor Augustus. Substantial ruins contain the remains of a fortress, cisterns, an aqueduct, a triumphal arch, a theatre, an amphitheater, a basilica with a circular crypt, and a bridge. Many mosaics are to be found there as well.
Uthina
Tunisia/Zeugitana
Associated with the battle is likely to be the Zama Regia mentioned in Sallust's account of the Jugurthine War as besieged unsuccessfully by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus. Later, The city was the capital of Juba I of Numidia (60–46 BC). In 41 BC. the city was captured by Titus Sextius, who, having previously been one of Julius Caesar's legates in Gaul,
Zama Regia
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