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Favoured by royalty; variety quartz coloured by iron; comes from the Greek for "not drunken"
Important in industrial processes like glass- and steel- making; found in a variety of colors but most common on purple; first mineral to show fluorescent under certain lighting and gave its name to that phenomenon
Formed in the volcanic rock syenite; first found in Japan; trade names include "Royal Azel", "lavulite", and " "luvulite"; good for cutting and polishing
Originates from the region of the River Chara in Siberia; found in alkaline igneous rocks; polishing shows swirling purple and white cloud-like structures; can have inclusions of black aegerine
AKA "water sapphire"; commonly found in sedimentary gneisses; views from different angles display different colours; inclusions of haematite turn some varieties red; other color varieties include brown or blue-gray
Has a soft sheen of tightly arranged, fibrous crystals; uncommon; principal sources are in Namibia, Rwanda, and USA; sometimes cut into cabochons to display its rich colour and appealing texture