Statistics for The 100 Greatest Philosophers

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General Stats

  • This quiz has been taken 1,415 times
  • The average score is 22 of 100

Answer Stats

Interest / BranchNationalityMain Contribution(s)Philosopher% Correct
MetaphysicsGreekFounded the Academy; helped people recognise what it means to be virtuousPlato
93%
BiologyGreekInvented the field of formal logicAristotle
88%
EpistemologyGreekHis technique for arguing a point; and interest in ethicsSocrates
86%
MathematicsGreekTheorem related to right-angled trianglesPythagoras
85%
EthicsChineseWanted to make education broadly availableConfucius
79%
Political PhilosophyGermanFounded communismKarl Marx
68%
AestheticsGerman"God is dead"Friedrich Nietzsche
66%
AestheticsGermanTaught that without human freedom, moral responsibility would be impossibleImmanuel Kant
62%
EpistemologyFrenchInvented analytical geometry, and made skepticism an essential part of the scientific methodRené Descartes
56%
EpistemologyEnglishKnown as the 'father of liberalism'John Locke
47%
EpistemologyBritishConceived of philosophy as the experimental science of human natureDavid Hume
45%
Neo-ConfucianismChineseStated that the difference between good and evil is intuitive knowledge, and not rational.Wang Yangming
44%
Political PhilosophyGenevanFormulated of social contract theory, which hugely influenced the French RevolutionJean-Jacques Rousseau
43%
EpistemologyFrenchHis system of existentialism, describing humans' freedom and responsibilitiesJean-Paul Sartre
43%
Political PhilosophyItalianArgued that people in power should use deception, force, and manipulation to achieve their endsNiccolò Machiavelli
43%
Neo-ConfucianismChineseContributed greatly to Chinese philosophy and fundamentally reshaped the Chinese worldviewZhu Xi
43%
EpistemologyGermanDeveloped a dialectical scheme that emphasized the progress of historyGeorg Hegel
40%
EpistemologyDanishThe first existential philosopher; criticised organised religionSøren Kierkegaard
40%
LogicAmericanHis naturalistic, empiricist, and behaviourist philosophical outlookWillard Van Orman Quine
39%
EthicsRomanHis 'Meditations' on Stoic philosophyMarcus Aurelius
38%
Political PhilosophyEnglishJustified wide-ranging government powers on the basis that citizens consented to themThomas Hobbes
37%
Political PhilosophyBritishBelieved that economic theory and philosophy should play a role in politicsJohn Stuart Mill
34%
Christian TheologyRomanAdapted Classical thought to Christian teaching and created a powerful theological systemAugustine of Hippo
33%
EpistemologyDutchSolved the mind-body dilemma by maintaining that God and Nature are oneBaruch Spinoza
32%
LogicGreekFounded the Stoic school of philosophyZeno of Citium
32%
MetaphysicsGreekHis ingenious paradoxes related to the concepts of continuity and infinityZeno of Elea
32%
Political PhilosophyFrenchPioneering figure of contemporary philosophical feminismSimone de Beauvoir
31%
Natural PhilosophyEnglishThought to be the father of empiricism; contributed to the development of the scientific methodFrancis Bacon
29%
AsceticismGreekAdvocated complete truthfulness at all times, developed cynicismDiogenes
28%
MetaphysicsGermanReinvigorated phenomenology; contributed to new movements such as postmodernismMartin Heidegger
28%
LogicBritishChampioning logicism; and refining predictable calculusBertrand Russell
27%
AestheticsGermanDeveloped an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system that rejected the ideas of German idealism.Arthur Schopenhauer
26%
MetaphysicsAustrianHe developed a metaphysical dualism that distinguishes radically between mindLudwig Wittgenstein
26%
MetaphysicsGreekTaught that the basic constituents of the world are atomsEpicurus
24%
Christian TheologyItalianPrimarily known for his five proofs of God's existenceThomas Aquinas
24%
Political PhilosophyBritishFounded modern utilitarianismJeremy Bentham
23%
HistoryFrenchTraced the development of Western civilizationMichel Foucault
23%
Political PhilosophyFrenchPromoted the separation of state powers: executive, legislative and judicialMontesquieu
23%
MetaphysicsGreekThe formulation of an atomic theory of the universeDemocritus
22%
MathematicsGermanProposed that the universe is made of an infinite number of simple substances known as 'monads'Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
21%
Philosophy of LanguageAmericanAimed to understand the tools and means through which children acquire languageNoam Chomsky
21%
MetaphysicsGreekSaid that fire forms the basic material principle of the universeHeracleitus
20%
EpistemologyFrenchDeveloping a form of semiotic analysis known as 'deconstruction'Jacques Derrida
18%
MedicineArabInvented an instrument for observing the coordinates of a starAvicenna
16%
EpistemologyBritishLed the turn from idealism and became known for advocating common-sense conceptsG.E. Moore
16%
MetaphysicsIrishFounded idealism, the doctrine that there is not a material worldGeorge Berkeley
16%
RationalityAustrianHis rejection of the inductive method in the empirical sciencesKarl Popper
16%
OntologyGermanEstablished the school of phenomenologyEdmund Husserl
14%
Political PhilosophyAmericanHis "justice as fairness" recommends equal basic liberties to eliminate inequalityJohn Rawls
14%
Islamic TheologySephardic JewishArgued that Torah contained philosophical wisdom and that its complete understanding is philosophicalMoses Maimonides
13%
OntologyGreekInvented the method of reasoned proof for assertionsParmenides
13%
PragmatismAmericanKnown for greatly advancing the movement of pragmatism in philosophyWilliam James
13%
EpistemologyFrenchOne of the founders of sociology, and believed that it could unite all sciencesAuguste Comte
12%
Islamic TheologyAndalusianInfluenced educational matters and promote harmony between philosophy and religion.Averroës
12%
Political PhilosophyGermanStudied the tradition of philosophic thought from the vantage point of its self-conscious conclusionHannah Arendt
12%
EpistemologyAmericanLeading proponent of pragmatism, one that favoured a more naturalistic approachJohn Dewey
12%
Social TheoryGermanArgued that technological transformations had morphed the public sphere for the betterJürgeb Habermas
11%
EthicsAustralianTeaches the application of morality to practical problems based on philosophical thinkingPeter Singer
11%
PlatonismRomanDeveloped a spiritual cosmology involving three elements: the One, the Intelligence, and the SoulPlotinus
11%
Philosophy of ScienceAmericanArgued that scientific fields undergo periodic "paradigm shifts"Thomas S. Kuhn
11%
Natural PhilosophyEnglishChallenged scholasticism and the papacy, contributing to the end of the medieval periodWilliam of Ockham
11%
Christian TheologyItalianKnown for discovering the “ontological argument;” and in theology for his doctrine of the atonement.Anselm of Canterbury
10%
SociologyGermanArgued that a capitalist society was a mass, consumer societyTheodor Wiesengrund Adorno
10%
MathematicsGermanFounded analytic philosophy; gave rise to the linguistic turn in philosophyGottlob Frege
7%
MetaphysicsFrenchHis theory of “duration,” which he understands to be the ultimate and irreducible realityHenri Bergson
7%
BiologyBritishDeveloped and applied evolutionary theory to philosophyHerbert Spencer
7%
MathematicsRomanWas the leader of the Neoplatonist school of philosophy in AlexandriaHypatia
7%
MetaphysicsScottishContributed to the development of a metaphysical system that was compatible with ChristianityJohn Duns Scotus
7%
EthicsChineseAdvocated light taxes, free trade and conservation of natural resourcesMencius
7%
EpistemologyGreekFounded skepticismPyrrho
7%
Political PhilosophyAmericanHis rigorous defense of libertarianismRobert Nozick
7%
EpistemologyRomanSaid that all things tend to the good, and also that things are by nature like what they desireBoethius
6%
MetaphysicsAmericanHis foundational work in the metaphysics of modalityDavid Kellogg Lewis
6%
EpistemologyItalianInvented the philosophy of historyGiambattista Vico
6%
Islamic TheologyAndalusianSaid that by self manifestation, one acquires divine knowledge: "the primordial spirit of Muhammad"Ibn al-'Arabī
6%
Jewish TheologyGermanCombined Judaism with the rationalism of the EnlightenmentMoses Mendelssohn
6%
LogicFrenchChampioned the use of reason in matters of faith; and his systematic treatment of religious doctrinesPeter Abelard
6%
Philosophy of LanguageAmericanBlended expertise in philosophy and comparative literature into a perspective called 'neopragmatism'Richard Rorty
6%
MetaphysicsBritishArgued that reality consists of processes rather than material objectsAlfred North Whitehead
5%
Islamic TheologyPersianDeveloped of a systematic view of Sufism and its integration and acceptance in mainstream IslamAl-Ghazālī
5%
Islamic TheologyArabWrote books detailing on geometry, logic, physics and medicineAl-Kindī
5%
EthicsBritishRevivified moral philosophy; and pioneered the current debates on personal identity and the selfBernard Williams
5%
Jewish TheologyRomanUsed philosophy to defend and justify religious teachingsPhilo
5%
LogicAmericanUndermined the conventional assumption that all and only necessary propositions are a prioriSaul Kripke
5%
DaoismChinesePromoted and developed Daoist thoughtZhuang Zhou
5%
EpistemologyBritishPromoting logical positivismA.J. Ayer
4%
Metaphysics(Asian)Contributed heavily to the fields of logic, mathematics, music, psychology, sociology and medicineAl-Fārābī
4%
OntologyAustrianHis thesis of dialogical existenceMartin Buber
4%
LogicGermanMade significant contributions to philosophy of science, philosophy of language and probabilityRudolf Carnap
4%
EpistemologyGreekStated that the ultimate goal of philosophical research is to achieve tranquility, or a state of ataraxiaSextus Empiricus
4%
HistoryItalianDeveloped a theory of circularity among “moments” of the four aspects of spirit, which history capturedBenedetto Croce
3%
BuddhismIndianArticulated the doctrine of emptiness, founded the Madhyamika (“Middle Way”) schoolNagarjuna
3%
AnthropologyGermanHis philosophy of life that perceived man in his historical contingencyWilhelm Dilthey
3%
HinduismIndianReforming the Vedanta tradition of Hinduism, making it one of India's most important "spiritual traditions"Adi Shankara
2%
MetaphysicsJapaneseTaught that the “Non-self ” is the ultimate reality where all subject–object cleavage is overcomeKitarō Nishida
2%
Political PhilosophyFrenchAdvocated economic freedom, religious toleration and legal and educational reformNicolas de Condorcet
2%
HinduismIndianDeveloped the intellectual basis for the practice of bhakti (devotional worship) in three commentariesRāmānuja
2%
BuddhismJapaneseTaught that Pure Land Buddhism was the most efficacious path in the present age of mappōShinran
2%
NeoplatonismAndalusianDeveloped the doctrine that all things are comprised of matter and formSolomon ibn Gabirol
2%
Philosophy of MindAmericanDeveloped critical realismWilfrid Sellars
2%

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