Statistics for The 100 Greatest Philosophers

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  • This quiz has been taken 2,398 times
    (526 since last reset)
  • The average score is 19 of 100

Answer Stats

Interest / BranchNationalityMain Contribution(s)Philosopher% Correct
MathematicsGreekHis theorem related to right-angled triangles; the theory of melodical octaves in music.Pythagoras
96%
EthicsChinesePromoted education as a vocation; his ideas about the hierarchy of the state and loyalty.Confucius
76%
MetaphysicsGreekFounded the Academy; helped people recognise what it means to be virtuous.Plato
66%
EpistemologyGreekHis technique for arguing a point; claimed that the unexamined life is not worth living.Socrates
61%
EthicsRomanHis 'Meditations' on Stoic philosophy; one of the first 'philosopher kings'.Marcus Aurelius
50%
BiologyGreekInvented the field of formal logic; pioneered zoology with his theories on classification.Aristotle
48%
AestheticsGermanHis critique of morality and simultaneous praise and scorn of nihilism; conceived the 'Übermensch' and 'will to power'.Friedrich Nietzsche
45%
Political PhilosophyGerman"From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs"; "Religion is the opium of the masses".Karl Marx
44%
EpistemologyEnglishKnown as the 'father of liberalism'; pioneered the ideas of natural law, social contract, and religious toleration.John Locke
38%
EpistemologyFrenchInvented analytical geometry with the use of algebra; made skepticism an essential part of the scientific method.René Descartes
38%
Political PhilosophyItalianArgued that politics has no relation to morality; prioritised empirical reasoning over religious dogma.Niccolò Machiavelli
36%
EpistemologyDanishDeemed the first existential philosopher; argued that reality is more subjective rather than objective.Søren Kierkegaard
35%
Political PhilosophyEnglishJustified government autocracy on the basis of public consent; stated that government's goal is upholding peace.Thomas Hobbes
35%
MetaphysicsGreekThe formulation of an atomic theory of the universe; rejected divine intervention in science.Democritus
34%
MetaphysicsGreekSaid that fire forms the basic material principle of the universe; formulated the 'Analogy of the River'.Heraclitus
34%
Political PhilosophyGenevanFormulated the social contract theory; developed radical ideas of liberty, equality, and fraternity.Jean-Jacques Rousseau
34%
EpistemologyGermanDeveloped a dialectical scheme emphasising the progress of history; presented self-determination as man's essence.Georg Hegel
33%
Political PhilosophyBritishWrote 'On Liberty': applying utilitarianism to society and state; praised eccentricity as a source of ideals.John Stuart Mill
33%
AestheticsGermanConsidered space and time "forms of intuition" in his idealist doctrine; elucidated a priori knowledge of objects.Immanuel Kant
32%
AsceticismGreekAdvocated complete truthfulness at all times; developed cynicism and austere asceticism.Diogenes
31%
EpistemologyFrenchDsscribed humans' freedom and responsibilities; defined two types of reality in 'Being and Nothingness'.Jean-Paul Sartre
31%
Political PhilosophyFrenchA pioneering figure of contemporary philosophical feminism; asserted that the individual is fundamentally free.Simone de Beauvoir
31%
MetaphysicsGreekHis ingenious paradoxes related to motion; considered the founder of the dialectic.Zeno of Elea
31%
Christian TheologyRomanAdapted Classical thought to Christian teaching; discussed the notions of the soul, creation and evil.Augustine of Hippo
30%
Political PhilosophyBritishFounded modern utilitarianism; his radical political views are associated with the welfare state.Jeremy Bentham
29%
Christian TheologyItalianThe five proofs of God's existence; incorporated Aristotelian philosophy in Christianity in the 'Summa contra Gentiles'.Thomas Aquinas
29%
MetaphysicsGreekTaught that the basic constituents of the world are atoms; promoted empiricism and hedonism.Epicurus
28%
MathematicsGermanProposed that the universe is made of an infinite number of "monads"; invented differential and integral calculus.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
28%
EpistemologyDutchHis pantheistic monism: that God did not create, but forms part of nature; criticised Biblical and Cartesian thought.Baruch Spinoza
27%
Natural PhilosophyEnglishThought to be the father of empiricism; contributed to the development of the scientific method.Francis Bacon
27%
AestheticsGermanCreated an atheistic metaphysical system; taught that humans are solely driven to act by the "will".Arthur Schopenhauer
25%
Political PhilosophyGermanCoined the phrase "the banality of evil"; outlined the faculty of human judgment in relation to political systems.Hannah Arendt
23%
Political PhilosophyFrenchPromoted the separation of state powers: executive, legislative and judicial; defended private property.Montesquieu
23%
LogicGreekFounded the Stoic school of philosophy; laid significance of the attainment of peace of mind.Zeno of Citium
23%
HistoryFrenchTraced the development of Western civilisation; addressed the relations between power and knowledge.Michel Foucault
22%
LogicBritishChampioned analytic philosophy; developed the axiomatic method for logical deduction from basic propositions.Bertrand Russell
21%
EpistemologyFrenchInvented 'deconstruction'; developed logocentrism: placing one concept at the centre of theorising meaning.Jacques Derrida
21%
OntologyGermanEstablished the school of phenomenology; criticised historicism in logic based on intentionality.Edmund Husserl
20%
MetaphysicsAustrianWrote on the logical relationship between propositions and the world; advocated a highly restrictive language use.Ludwig Wittgenstein
20%
MetaphysicsGermanReinvigorated phenomenology and promoted postmodernism; devised a theory for technology.Martin Heidegger
20%
OntologyGreekInvented the method of reasoned proof for assertions; pioneered the field of ontology.Parmenides
20%
Philosophy of LanguageAmericanReformed linguistics with such theories as 'Transformational Generative Grammar'; promotes non-interventionism in war.Noam Chomsky
19%
PlatonismRomanDeveloped a spiritual cosmology involving three elements: the One, the Intelligence, and the Soul.Plotinus
19%
EpistemologyBritishAnticipated modern monetarism, such as interest rate; "causes and effects are discoverable by experience".David Hume
18%
Political PhilosophyAmericanHis "justice as fairness" recommends equal basic liberties to eliminate inequality; devised the 'original position'.John Rawls
18%
EthicsAustralianDefined ethical actions as those that maximise overall pleasure; wrote on ideals to end global poverty.Peter Singer
18%
Christian TheologyItalianDiscovering the “ontological argument” for the theory of God in the Proslogion; his doctrine of the atonement.Anselm of Canterbury
17%
MedicineArabHis work 'Al Qanun Fi Al-Tibb' (The Canon of Medicine); his theory of essence posits three modalities.Avicenna
17%
MetaphysicsIrishDeveloped immaterialism - the being of objects "is to be perceived"; stated that one's duty is to obey God's laws.George Berkeley
17%
MathematicsRomanLeader of the Neoplatonist school of philosophy in Alexandria; her development of geometry.Hypatia
14%
Islamic TheologySephardic JewishCodified Jewish Law through 'The Guide for the Perplexed'; reconciled Aristotelian philosophy with the Torah.Moses Maimonides
14%
EpistemologyGreekFounded skepticism; advocated the suspension of judgement over the truth of all beliefs and dogma.Pyrrho
14%
MathematicsGermanFounded analytic philosophy; held the truths of arithmetic are logical truths in the 'Begriffsschrift'.Gottlob Frege
13%
MetaphysicsScottishArgued that God can create and conserve “prime matter”; the idea of haecceity - giving the individual identity.John Duns Scotus
13%
MetaphysicsBritishArgued that reality is a process and not material; his 'Principia Mathematica' is a key work in mathematical logic.Alfred North Whitehead
12%
EpistemologyFrenchIntroduced sociology and positivism; founded the 'Religion of Humanity': a secular belief system.Auguste Comte
12%
PragmatismAmericanAdvanced the pragmatist movement; posited that emotions arise from physiological responses to external events.William James
12%
MetaphysicsFrenchHis theory of “duration": the irreducible reality; discussed dualism in 'Matière et mémoire'.Henri Bergson
11%
EthicsChineseAdvocated light taxes, free trade and welfare for the elderly; said that the human nature is good.Mencius
11%
Philosophy of ScienceAmericanArgued that scientific fields undergo periodic "paradigm shifts"; defined five cognitive values, such as 'precision'.Thomas S. Kuhn
11%
Natural PhilosophyEnglishChallenged scholasticism and the papacy, partially ending the medieval period; developed the principle of parsimony.William of Ockham
11%
EpistemologyBritishPresented the verification principle as the only valid basis for philosophy; wrote 'Language, Truth and Logic'.A.J. Ayer
10%
Islamic TheologyAndalusianAsserted that humans share the same intellect; contended that philosophy is just the revelation of God's might.Averroës
9%
BiologyBritishApplied evolutionary theory and Darwinism to philosophy; formulated three principles regulating the universe.Herbert Spencer
9%
EpistemologyAmericanLeading proponent of pragmatism; reconnected philosophy with the mission of education-for-living.John Dewey
9%
Social TheoryGermanArgued that technological transformations had bettered society; developed the theory of communicative reason.Jürgeb Habermas
9%
Jewish TheologyRomanUsed philosophy to justify religious teachings in the Torah; combined Jewish exegesis with Stoicism.Philo
9%
RationalityAustrianRejected the inductive method in the empirical sciences; replaced critical realism with critical rationalism.Karl Popper
8%
OntologyAustrianHis work 'Ich und Du' - expressing the dialogue of man with other beings; promoted Zionist thought.Martin Buber
8%
LogicAmericanUndermined the idea that all propositions are a priori; his semantics for modal logic involving possible worlds.Saul Kripke
8%
SociologyGermanArgued that a capitalist society was a consumer society; coined 'identity thinking' to describe categorical thought.Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno
8%
DaoismChinesePromoted Daoist thought on nature and being; developed ideas on pragmatics and semantics.Zhuang Zhou
8%
EpistemologyBritishLed the turn from idealism to common-sense judgment; advocated non-ethical naturalism.G.E. Moore
7%
EpistemologyItalianInvented the philosophy of history; coined the constructivist aphorism "Verum esse ipsum factum".Giambattista Vico
7%
Jewish TheologyGermanCombined Judaism with the rationalism of the Enlightenment; advocated religious toleration.Moses Mendelssohn
7%
LogicFrenchArgued that God and the universe can be known via logic and emotion; the father of metaphysical nominalism.Peter Abelard
7%
Philosophy of LanguageAmericanBlended philosophy and literature into 'neopragmatism'; advocated sentimental education to promote human rights.Richard Rorty
7%
Islamic TheologyPersianDeveloped of a systematic view of Sufism; combined Islamic spiritualism and fundamentalism.Al-Ghazālī
6%
BuddhismIndianArticulated the doctrine of emptiness; founded the Madhyamika (“Middle Way”) school.Nagarjuna
6%
LogicAmericanReplaced first-order logic with his system 'New Foundations'; developed an indispensability argument.Willard Van Orman Quine
6%
Neo-ConfucianismChineseSaid that the cosmos has two aspects: the indeterminate and the determinate; systematised the Confucian ideals.Zhu Xi
6%
Political PhilosophyAmericanPioneered three principles to determine how one deserves something; worked on decision theory.Robert Nozick
5%
LogicGermanHis theory of logical syntax; his book 'Der Raum' established a logical basis for the space-time theory.Rudolf Carnap
5%
Neo-ConfucianismChineseStated that the difference between good and evil is intuitive; propagated a genuine understanding of the self.Wang Yangming
5%
Islamic TheologyArabPropagated philosophy in the Islamic world; founded a metaphysical dualism differentiating body and mind.Al-Kindī
4%
EthicsBritishCoined the term 'moral luck'; his denial of political moralism, claiming that politics is never regulated by ethics.Bernard Williams
4%
EpistemologyRomanTaught that everything is by nature as it desires; developed the idea of autonomous knowledge domains.Boethius
4%
HinduismIndianReformed the Vedanta tradition of Hinduism; founded four monasteries in every corner of India.Adi Shankara
3%
Metaphysics(Asian)Divided logic into Takhayyul (idea) and Thubut (proof); introduced the theory of the Ten Intelligences.Al-Fārābī
3%
HistoryItalianCoined the circularity among “moments” of the four aspects of spirit; said that art is the expression of emotion.Benedetto Croce
3%
MetaphysicsAmericanArgued that states of the mind are simply states of the brain; developed the metaphysics of modality.David Kellogg Lewis
3%
EpistemologyGreekStated that the ultimate goal of philosophical research is to achieve ataraxia: a state of peace.Sextus Empiricus
3%
Philosophy of MindAmericanDubbed foundationalist epistemology the "Myth of the Given"; described the behavioural web of language.Wilfrid Sellars
3%
AnthropologyGermanHeld that man can only be comprehended by historical knowledge; worked on hermeneutical research.Wilhelm Dilthey
3%
Islamic TheologyAndalusianTaught that by self manifestation, one acquires "the primordial spirit of Muhammad"; wrote on Quranic exegesis.Ibn al-'Arabī
2%
MetaphysicsJapaneseTaught that the “Non-self ” is the ultimate reality where all subject–object cleavage is overcome.Kitarō Nishida
2%
HinduismIndianDeveloped the basis for the bhakti; taught that the phenomenal world is real and provides real knowledge.Rāmānuja
2%
Political PhilosophyFrenchAdvocated economic freedom and legal and educational reform; an early abolitionist, transhumanist, and feminist.Nicolas de Condorcet
1%
BuddhismJapaneseTaught that Pure Land Buddhism was the best path to mappō; found reciprocity between Amida and Sakyamuni.Shinran
1%
NeoplatonismAndalusianPosited that all things comprise matter and form (Universal Hylomorphism); influenced Christian Scholasticism.Solomon ibn Gabirol
1%

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