7. elections

Quiz by sjdbc
Last updated: May 4, 2023
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things to consider when evaluating electoral systems
proportionality and vote value
stable government
constituency link
extension of voter choice
promoting participation
comprehensibility and transparency
worst for proportionality
eg 2019 conservatives
won 77 more seats than proportion of the vote
best for proportionality
List PR
eg 2019 european elections brexit party
39% of the vote and 40% of the seats
why is STV best for vote value
minor parties can affect final outcome
FPTP is good for strong government however it did produce in recent years,
coalition 2010 and minority government 2017
worst for strong governemnt
PR tends to produce multi party government
best for constituency link
which system also does have constituency links, but just over larger areas
constituency link is undermined anyway by what?
party whips
why is FPTP best for transparency and comprehensibility ?
clear simple straightforward efficient
worst for transparency and comprehensibility as complicated multiple rounds
2007 Scottish Parliament Elections- new electoral systems produce unnecessary complications
3.5% of ballots filled in incorrectly
but its the governments responsibility to?
educate the electorate
2015 pressure group created campaigning against FPTP
make votes matter
number of elected representatives is calculated by the number of votes actually received
proportional representation
candidates with the highest number of votes in each constituency is elected
majoritarian system/ winner takes all
what does PR make much more likely?
coalition government
electoral systems used in the UK - FPTP
general elections
party list system
european elections
scottish parliament/ welsh parliament
Northern Irish Assembly
select committee chair elections
2019 Lib Dems won how many seats under FPTP?
but could have won how many if AMS had been used?
2019 SNP won how many seats under FPTP?
but could have won how many under AMS?
this is an example of?
winners bonus
which other parties are also routinely overrepresented?
labour and conservative
eg 2005 labour
35% of the vote and 55% of the seats
no government in recent years has formed with over 50% of the?
popular vote
2019 green party won how many votes compared to seats?
865,000 votes 1 seat
but could have won how many seats with AMS?
how many votes were wasted in 2019
22 million
an instance where a right wing candidate is elected because of a split liberal vote
progressive tragedy constituencies
so voters may resort to?
tactical voting
1997 amount of conservative seats lost due to tactical voting
the need for tactical voting proves FPTP is?
open list systems allows for (eg for centrists who dont like their more left wing labour candidate)
a choice of candidates from the same party
1983 labour won 2.2% more votes than lib dem, but how many more seats?
97-10 lib dems were getting what percent of the vote?
2019 what percentage of vote did not affect the final representation in parliament?
this does not meet what concept?
one person one vote one value
where in Europe is FPTP used?
only the UK
why people vote the way they do
key changes in voting behaviour
class dealignment
partisan dealignment
more swing votes
rise of identity politics
why may people choose to vote for a particular party
manifesto pledges
media influence
demographic factors
rational choice
modern labour and conservative parties are?
reasonably ideologically similar
so the median voter may focus on?
salient issues that vary by election
2010 salient issue
2015 salient issue
2017 salient issue
valence issue
an issue that is unanimous
why were Labour 'unelectable' from 2010-20
corbyn considered unreliable on the economy
shows that people consider not only the competency of the whole party, but also the?
reliability of the leadership
salient issues vary over time, as does consideration given to them by the main parties, so gives third parties the opportunity to focus on a specific issue, eg
UKIP on immigration
green party on the environment
partisan dealignment may lead to an increase of
floating voters
2010, what percentage of votes went to parties other than labour/tory
peter pulzer
"in british politics, class is everything, all else is embellishment and detail"
how did people vote post war
working class voted labour middle class voted tory
what happened from then?
class dealignment
john prescot
"were all middle class now"
1974 - what percentage of the middle class voted tory?
compared to 2010?
what also dictated social class in the 70s?
in the 70s what percentage of unskilled workers voted labour?
compared to what in 2010?
traditional working class industries heavily impacted by?
diminishing traditional working class is because of the?
embourgeoisement of society
higher access to education
increased affluence
changes in labour market
fewer trade unions
this is why the middle class is now the main target for both main parties- and traditional working class have become?
left behind voters
eg labour has done what
distanced themselves from the trade unions
geographical demographics- what happened in 2019?
collapse of the red wall
showing the subsequent collapse of what?
core voter bases
in 2019, the middle classes tended to gravitate towards?
class used to be the best predictor of voting trends- what is it now?
young people have the lowest turnout- what was it in 2019?
more likely to be dealigned
who tends to vote for labour?
young people
ethnic minorities
what did YouGov estimate about older people voting Tory?
2019 the chance of a person voting Tory increases 9 percentage points every 10 years of age
perhaps this indicates that voting behaviour for older generations is more?
s. popkin - people take
information shortcuts
so look to other sources as people dont trust politicians such as,
opinion leaders
social media
also a significant predictor of voter behaviour is?
labor voters tend to be?
university educated
qualities of top political leaders
communication (conveying what you stand for)
policy (building policy that is linked to party values but appeals broadly)
adaptable in crisis
example of good, clear communicators
thatcher (strident and aggressive)
Blair (good public speaker)
examples of bad communicators
Brown (bad infront of cameras)
May (parroted strong and stable but no clear policy communication)
examples of ministerial experience
Johnson was london mayor and foreign sec.
Major was foreign sec. and chancellor
example of no experience
corbyn was just a backbencher
strong policy
Johnson get brexit done
weak policy
example of adapting to crisis
thatcher falklands war
example of bad adapting to crisis
johnson lockdown mistakes
influence of the media
what are the aims of the media?
make money
reflect public opinion
set the agenda
what percentage of people read a newspaper daily (can be on the internet)
what percentage of people have access to a TV
what percentage of people consider TV to be their main source of information
how many people in 2019 had access to the internet
this figure was 50% when?
BBC and ITV are required to be ?
recent case that suggests otherwise?
Gary Lineker
general consensus is that media is currently leaning to the?
the influence of the Sun in 1992-
its the sun wot won it
other evidence of its influence
backed labour in 1997 and conservative in 2010
what percentage of its readership are from social class DE
different theories
lazarsfeld reinforcement theory
birch, exposure to predisposed opinions
media sets agenda
however, r. hammal suggests
bias =/= influence
media is clearly biased- but do they actually influence voting?
its the sun wot won it
ministers have civil servants specifically for dealing with media
spin doctors
media was very pro-brexit- combined readership of leave newspapers was
compared to what for remain newspapers?
how much did conservatives spend on social media advertising in 2015?
compared to Labour's
could have led in part to the?
surprise conservative majority
who could have contributed to the conservative sucess ?
shy tories
cameron quote
"the only opinion poll that matters is election day"
opinions polls are often wrong- predicted a close race in
but it was in reality a humiliating defeat for
Neil Kinnock
2015- underestimated shy tory support and overestimated
labour voter turnout
should opinion polls be banned in election campaigns?
freedom of info
supressing internet is impractical
can help people decide
polling organisations are professional and unbiased
speculation dominates headlines rather than policy
can distort outcome ( reactionary votes)
encourage tactical voting
first american TV debates held in
nixon and kennedy
people who listened on the radio thought
nixon won
people who saw on TV though
kennedy won
shows that what has a vast impact?
first uk tv debate was in?
who was favoured in them?
brown looked tired, clegg and cameron were dynamic and engaged
2015 Milliband interviews- why were they bad?
fell on stage
"are you okay ed?"
historic elections- 1983
landslide victory for ?
conservative party
guardian called it a?
bizarre miracle
3million unemployed / winter of discontent
role of the media- pre social media and TV required to be impartial, so main influence was?
'sun' headline against micheal foot
do you seriously want this old man to run britain ?
significance of manifestos- labours was considered too left wing-
"the longest suicide note in history"
significance of publicity despite Thatcher's dislike for 'media circuses'
16 television interviews
ITV documentary
very good infront of cameras
how the election affected policy making for Thatcher-
enabled further privatisation
emboldened the government to take on mining unions
how the election affected policy making for Labour-
gradual return to centrist position
significance of FPTP- one of the clearest examples of who being penalised?
third parties
what percentage of MPs would not have won their seat if PR had been used?
labour won 2.2% more seats, but how many more seats than the lib dems?
percentage of the popular vote won by conservatives
just over 40%
therefore- particularly as thatchers policies were so divise and polarising- what is questioned?
strength of the mandate
historic elections- 1997, landslide victory for?
new labour
new labour revisions
clause IV rewritten
abandoned controversial policies (unilateral nuclear disarmament)
reduced power of trade unions accepted
'third way' (rather than traditionally socialist)
significant electoral data
tories lost over half their seats (portillo moment)
record number of women elected (120)
tory seats estimated to have been lost to tactical voting
sheffield hallam
role of the media- what did the sun do that was significant?
changed allegiances
this was a deliberate ploy by Blair- 1995
flew to Australia to meet rupert murdoch
significance of party policies and manifesto pledges- programme was what rather than ideological?
key points
welfare (emphasis on personal responsibility rather than a powerful state)
tough on crime
HOL reform
middle way approach to education
no tax increases
leadership- tony blair appealed to
middle class
younger voters
deputy john prescot appealed to
traditional working class
john major was portrayed as what by the media?
tory attempts to attack blair
demon eyes poster
advertising standards authority asked them to withdraw it- classic example of?
political advertising backfiring
historic election 2017- resurgence of ?
2 party politics
in 1951
97% of all votes went to labour + conservative
by 1970 the equivalent figure was still
almost 90%
2010- the figure was
less than 2 3rds
2017- it was
84% (highest proportion since 1970)
a new demographic cleavage-
leave or remain
class politics is back?
working class voted leave middle class voted remain
historic election 2019- brought back a majority government after
9 years
salient issue was still
labours core voters declined
collapse of red wall
however, the most significant voting predictor remained?
what did YouGov estimate about older people voting Tory?
2019 the chance of a person voting Tory increases 9 percentage points every 10 years of age
role of the media was significant- and had changed- why?
rise of social media
labour outspent conservatives - yet still lost the election
1.4m to 900,000
this is linked to age- why?
older voters dont use social media
social media is also much more unregulated- one study found what?
88% of tory ads had questionable claims
significance of policy- johnsons was clear
get brexit done
whereas labour promised a ?
second referendum
significance of leadership- labours red wall collapse attibuted to?
corbyns weak leadership
alan johnson
"corbyn couldnt lead the working class out of a paper bag"
boris johnsons leadership style
how the election affected policy making- was expected that brexit would dominate but what forced it to the political sidelines?
showing that even govts with strong majorities can be forced to?
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