8. political parties

Quiz by sjdbc
Last updated: April 10, 2023
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First submittedApril 10, 2023
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functions of political parties
compete in elections
devise policy
scrutiny ( role of the opposition)
reflect public opinion
but their main function
win office and hold power
development of the conservative party
one nation conservatism
butskellite pragmatism and consensus
one nation conservatism most strongly associated with
Benjamin Disraeli
the palace is not safe when the cottage is not happy
wealth and privilege are fine + natural- but with them comes?
duty and responsibility
butskellite views came in the wake of?
ww2 /1945
where did conservative views shift to?
the centre
and what was there between labour and conservative?
large areas of consensus
buskellite conservatism was also?
pro european (keen to join EEC and common market)
traditional principles of conservatism are based on pragmatism and good sense, thatcherism was based on?
emphasis was on?
personal responsibility
and the 'dragons' of the ?
trade unions
basic aim
mass privatisation
when was the miners strike?
which union did Thatcher break?
NUM (national union of mineworkers)
modern principles of the conservative party
encapsulates all 3 strands
2019 election manifesto policies and their corresponding strand
pledge (NHS)
50,000 more nurses, 50m more GP appointments
strand- buskellite
triple lock pensions
strand - one nation
everyone who can work should work
strand - thatcherism
until 2019, main division in Tory party was over?
origins of the Labour party was an alliance between ?
trade unions and socialist groups
clause IV represented what views?
abolish capitalism
abolish nationalism
redistribution of wealth
core strands/ ideas
economic socialism
trade unionism
globalist internationalism
new labour / third way
economic socialism examples
welfare state (under atlee)
mass state ownership (also under atlee- coal, mining, steel)
but, thatcher mass privatised and blair/ brown chose not to?
influence of trade unions over the labour party has largely?
how many trade unions were affiliated with labour in 2020?
eg, which major trade union has no influence over labours policy / funding?
globalist internationalism principles
peace and disarmament
resisting facism / racism
Ramsey Macdonald remained a pacifist during ww1
grassroots movement in the labour party against?
nuclear weapons
and in favour of?
unilateral disarmament
this is because socialism places an emphasis on ?
solidarity across national boundaries
this caused huge divisions in Blair years because of his support for?
war on terror
and he was denounced as what by many of the left?
new labour emphasis was on what?
modernising and updating
by doing what?
accepting Thatcherite economic policies but retaining labour social values
blairs mantra
education education education
focused on elimiating?
child poverty
his approach was seen as what by some?
and what by others (eg corbyn who frequently rebelled on the backbenches)
a betrayal
blairs re writing of clause IV epitomises his?
pragmatism and modernisation
2019 election manifesto pledges and how it reflects the strands/ ideas of the historical labour party
raise minimum wage
strand- arguably Blairite
bring forward net 0 target
strand- globalist internationalism
national grid
energy firms
water industry
royal mail
stop nhs privatisation
abolish private schools charitable status
economic socialism
remove unfair restrictions on trade unions
repeal 2016 trade union act
strand- trade unionism
lib dem 2019 pledges and core values they represent
stop brexit
pro europe
defend HRA
pro civil liberties (historically, this has also been shown in the opposition to Labour's compulsory ID cards)
lower voting age
replace FPTP with STV
HoL reform
electoral reform
extend devolution
pro federalism
reinstate 20% corporation tax
high taxes on the wealthy
current state of the lib dem party
11 seats
2010 seats compared to 2015 seats
57 to 8
all parties have a local structure and a national structure
national conservative governing body
conservative campaign headquarters
day to day running is left to
board of the conservative party
how many members are grassroots members?
national labour governing body
national executive committee
who represented in the NEC?
trade unions
party representatives
local councillors
young labour
national lib dem governing body
federal board
3 ways to analyse how democratic political parties are
picking leaders
policy formation
choosing MPs
(conservatives) what was set up to involve more grassroots participation
conservative policy forum 1998
although its suggestions are only?
(lib dems) how is policy passed?
debated at conference
(lib dems) regional policies are set at?
regional conferences
(lib dem) reflecting their belief in?
3 main parties all have a similar ?
candidate selection process
labour pioneered the use of?
all women shortlists
labours NEC was accused of?
fast tracking favoured candidates
who was recently blocked from standing as a labour MP?
labour party leadership elections- candidates must secure what backing?
10% of labour MPs
3 affiliates/ 5% constituency parties
then, party members vote using what?
why was only 1 round needed in 2020?
keir starmer won over 50%
conservative party leadership elections - how do MPs narrow the choice down to 2 candidates
vote in a series of ballots
eg in 2019 how many candidates secured enough support to stand?
but only 2 were not eliminated- who?
jeremy hunt and boris johnson
party members then vote to pick the final choice- what proportion of the vote did johnson win by in 2019?
2 3rds
lib dem leadership elections- candidates must secure what backing?
10% of lib dem MPs
200 members from 20 local parties
then party memberships vote using?
ed davey won the first round with what percent of the vote?
why is letting grassroots members choose problematic?
grassroots members = more ideologically extreme than general public
so candidates that appeal to some party bases but not the masses can be chosen, eg?
2 key pieces of legislation that regulate party funding
PPERA 2000
PPEA 2009
the first one placed limits on what
spend per constituency
what was it limited to?
parties also have to declare?
large donations
which was defined as what in 2020?
£7500 (this was updated from £5000, but did not require a new act as ministers can adjust existing bills with secondary legislation)
second one allowed the electoral commission to?
impose fines
restrict donations from non uk residents
reduce threshold for declaring donations
most political parties receive funding from?
membership subscriptions
agreed to be the most what way of funding?
fairest and transparent
problem -
doesnt generate enough money
historically majority of labour funding came from?
trade unions
labour was still bankrolled heavily by them under corbyn
GMB and Unite gave £3m combined 2019
historically majority of conservative funding came from?
wealthy individuals and businesses
but recently labour has also enjoyed large donations from individuals, eg
bernie ecclestone £1m donation 1997
smaller parties can also received large donations, eg
christopher harbourne £2m brexit party 2019
what percentage of funding came from individual donations in 2019
example of cash for honours scandal recipient
Michael Farmer
current ways parties can receive state funding?
short money (commons)
Cranbourne money (lords)
why do opposition parties recieve this- so they can provide?
effective scrutiny
there should be further state funding
less corruption (cant buy political influence, end the dependence on the wealth)
there should be further state funding
efficient (politicians dont have to waste time cosying up to donors or performing favours)
there should be further state funding
fairer (conservative party cannot use their influence with business to raise more money)
there should be further state funding
regulation (easy to regulate as everything controlled by the state)
there should be further state funding
encourage campaigning (parties would be encouraged to raise their vote everywhere not just marginal seats)
there should be further state funding
trade unions (dont have to endorse labour)
there should not be further state funding
taxpayer (state funding comes from taxes, and people shouldnt have to endorse a party they disagree with)
there should not be further state funding
inequality (there would still be inequality in funding as some parties are just bigger)
there should not be further state funding
free market (politics should be viewed as an extension of the free market, and donations should therefore be unregulated provided they are declared)
there should not be further state funding
third parties (would be unfairly affected)
there should not be further state funding
corrupt state (puts too much power in the hands of the state)
the relationship between parties and the media
strict impartiality rules means parties cant buy what?
tv ads
due to the decline of newspapers, much of the media war is now conducted?
lib dem total spend of facebooks ads 2019 campaigns
labour total spend on facebook ads 2019 campaign
conservative total spend on facebook ads 2019 campaigns
factors that affect parties electoral outcome
party unity
strength of opposition
electoral system
significance of minor parties - nationalist parties have ?
strong regional following
how did the SNP pressure the political agenda?
SIR 2014
northern ireland has its own party system based on?
unionist and nationalist divide
examples of single issue parties
green party
brexit party
requirement to be a two party system?
80% of vote 90% of seats
2019 conservative and labour combined percentage of popular vote
combined percentage of seats
yet in 2010, what percent of the vote went to labour and conservative?
ams and stv means there are more parties represented in ?
devolved government
eg NI - how many parties share the seats
european elections- how many parties won seats?
how many main parties are there in scotland
Level 22
Feb 13, 2024
alright what the heck dude