normative ethical theories

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Last updated: November 17, 2022
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created by
thomas aquinas
in which century
four fold divisions
eternal law, divine law, natural moral law, human law
eternal law definition
gods laws of creation
divine law definition
eternal law revealed through special revelation
natural moral law
natural sense of right and wrong
discovered through?
human law
legal system
human law should not contradict?
natural moral law
natural moral law developed from whos ideas?
who developed his theory based on?
and viewed human purpose as?
but aquinas and natural moral law view human purpose as?
fellowship with god
our telos on earth is ?
human flourishing
but the telos of all humanity is?
beatific vision
which can only be achieved?
in the afterlife
quote about human telos and happiness
full happiness resides in the loving vision of god
who said this?
father pinckaers
synderesis rule
do good and avoid evil
why are all the other precepts based from the synderesis rule?
it is the main guiding principle
primary precepts
preservation of innocent life, reproduction, educate children, worship god , ordered society
why is the first precept something that humans share with all other substances?
all things have a natural desire to keep existing
who do humans have the 2nd and 3rd precepts in common with?
the 4th and 5th precepts are?
unique to humans
relationship between primary and secondary precepts?
secondary precepts are derived from primary precepts
example of secondary precept for reproduction
no contraception
example of secondary precept for ordered society
no theft
controversy around the idea that secondary precepts are?
culturally relative
things may be legal in some countries but go against the precepts eg
however, while the primary precepts are absolute, the secondary precepts can be more flexible
quote from Aquinas
the natural law is altogether unchangeable in its first principles, but in its secondary principles may be changed in some particular cases of rare occurrence
what text is the quote from?
summa theologica
aquinas believed in 2 types of good
real and apparent
real good
truly good and works with God’s purpose
apparent good
something that appears good but does not fit with God’s intended purpose

eg, adultery can feel like a real good because of
short term pleasure
but it is an apparent good as
goes against precepts
exterior acts are only good if accompanied by?
right intention
for example?
philanthropy for fame is not true morality
4 cardinal virtues
prudence justice fortitude temperance
3 theological virtues
faith hope love
virtuous development in order to?
correct our fallen nature
what does Aquinas use to discuss the legality of killing in self defence?
the principle of double effect
what is the main summary of it?
always wrong to do a bad act with good consequences, sometimes okay to do a good act with bad consequences
how many conditions does the principle have
first condition
nature of the act
act must not be morally bad
second condition
evil is not made a means to obtain good effect
third condition
right intention
bad effect must be an unintentional side effect
explanation cont.
bad effect can be forseen but must not be intended
fourth condition
good effect should be at least proportionate to the evil
kevin kelly on NML
too deontologically focused
aquinas said it was acceptable to ?
steal bread for starving family
but not acceptable to?
lie to save someone from death
quote about proportionalist reaction to aquinas
they have "pointed out the inconsistency and invalidity of such thinking"
proportionalism dictates that you should never go against certain moral rules without?
a proportionate reason
proportionalist scholars
hoose and janssens
they said modern day versions of NML were too?
when deciding if an action is moral/immoral you need to consider?
the intention of the moral agent
if intention is ignored, you can only consider?
the ontic goodness of the act
acts only become valued when you consider both (1)
proportion of value to disvalue
intention of the moral agent
so, no acts are ?
intrinsically evil
context- era
hippie movement, sexual revolution, promotion of peace
Paul Tillich quote
the law of love is the ultimate law because it is the negation of the law
William Temple quote
only one ultimate and invariable duty, love thy neighbour
Joesph Flecter's foreword to Situation Ethics contain an anecdote of ?
st louis bus story
the moral of which being?
there are times when a man has to push his principles aside and do the right thing
set of absolute rules and regulations
no laws governing human behaviour, ad hoc
inbetween legalism and antinomianism
moral decisions are based on?
what best serves love
Christian selfless love
it is neo casuistry, meaning
case based and circumstance dependent
4 presuppositions
pragmatism relativism positivism personalism
what is practical
quote about pragmatism from william james
a pragmatist turns his back on fixed principles
relativity to the situation
knowing gods love
people focused
fletcher also emphasizes the importance of ?
but rejects conventional ideas about it and says its a ?
verb not a noun, prospective not retrospective
fletcher, in addition to the 4 presuppositions had ?
6 propositions
love only is always good
example of a solider
suicide is a good act in self sacrifice
love is the only norm
example 1
bonhoeffers assasination plan
example 2
mother maria
love and justice are the same
what can be used to calculate the amount of love generated by an action
agapeic calculus
British intelligence in ww2
loving is not liking
love justifies the means
wilderness road
gisella pearl
love decides there and then
created by
born ?
stagira, greece 384 bc
wrote several books on ethics including?
nicomachean ethics
who was aristotles teacher?
who developed ?
four cardinal virtues prudence justice fortitude temperance
aristotle believed human telos is?
and that the ultimate aim is?
the greatest good
in order to achieve this end we must?
archers hitting a target
supreme happiness =
happiness for the community not the individual
what type of ethical system?
character based
to develop we must?
control our emotions and behaviour
aristotle believed virtuous behaviour could become a?
habit through practise
and we can know how virtuous we are through?
responding spontaneously to situations
what must you be about your actions?
self reflective
2 types of virtues
moral and intellectual
how many moral virtues are there?
which lie between?
excess and deficiency
and you aim for?
the golden mean
how many intellectual virtues are there?
aristotle believes moral virtue should not be evaluated over a short period, but rather over someone's?
complete life
there are 2 aspects to the human soul
rational and non rational
the non rational soul has ?
moral virtues
such as?
courage patience modesty
the rational soul has?
intellectual virtues
such as?
phronesis , episteme , eubolia
moral virtues are developed by?
one swallow doesnt make a spring
choice means?
rational deliberation
golden mean is?
relative to each individual
and found through?
stages of finding the golden mean?
sophron akrate enkrate
pleasure definition
unimpeded activity of a natural condition
virtue developed from pleasure
only what kind of actions can be virtuous?
what in necessary to carry out a virtuous action?
proper intention
proper intention does not include motivators like?
desire wish opinion
it must involve?
deliberation and choice
aristotle concludes that good life for humans=
which is the intellectual virtue of?
aristotles definition of injustice
when someone does soemthing wrong for their advantage
justice demands?
quote about benefits and society
"a person should reap the benefits from society according to what he sows for it"
a good government instils
the highest moral standards in its citizens
and encourages
moral growth
3 major types of happiness
bovine, honour seekers, contemplative
Robert Louden-
VE doesn’t provide answers to moral dilemmas when virtues clash
Level 47
Jan 31, 2023
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