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Creation of Soil
500 years to make 1 inch of topsoil can be easily lost to erosion -> qualifies as nonrenewable, agriculture needs around 6 in of topsoil, in the past 40 years, lost 1/3 of crop land bc of soil degredation
ends up water ways, increase in water pollution, increase in turbidity, less light gets in, less photosynthesis for plants
bacteria fix nitrogen, fungi on tree roots help w/ absorption, decomposer break down leaf litter, organisms mix soil, animals burrow -> aeration, animal feces fertilize soil
General ways we modify soil
fertilizer, liming -> add base to neutralize acid, deforestation -> increase in erosion and compaction, more water runoff