100 scientists who changed the world

Give 100 scientists from all field of science. To help you, the list is chronological and the (approximate) dates of birth and death are given. You also get their most important field of study. As a bonus, you get a hint which should trigger the answer in some way.
Note that the further in the past, the more difficult it is to pinpoint one specialty. In that case, the field they are most known or awarded for is indicated (this is not always their greatest contribution).
source = Science: 100 Scientists Who Changed the World (Enchanted Lion Books: New York, 2003), written by John Balchin
Quiz by MATHIAS1
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Last updated: November 12, 2015
First submittedNovember 6, 2015
Times taken1,369
Average score36.0%
Rating3.83
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HINT: think of all units, laws, rules, numbers,... with a given name.
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year of birth and death
major field
HINT
Name
c. 611-547 B.C.
Philosophy
School of Milete
Anaximander
c. 581-497 B.C.
Mathematics
a²+b²=c²
Pythagoras
c. 460-377 B.C.
Medicine
...'oath
Hippocrates of Cos
c. 460-370 B.C.
Philosophy
father of modern science
Democritus of Abdera
c. 427-347 B.C.
Philosophy
big three
Plato
c. 384-322 B.C.
Philosophy
big three
Aristotle
c. 330-260 B.C.
Mathematics
father of math
Euclid
c. 287-212 B.C.
Inventor
EUREKA
Archimedes
c. 170-125 B.C.
Astronomy
precession of equinoxes
Hipparchus
78-139 A.D.
Polymath
Chinese genius
Zhang Heng
90-168 A.D.
Polymath
Egyptian genius
Ptolemy
130-201 A.D.
Medicine
father of physiology
Galen of Pergamum
800-850
Mathematics
numbers, 0
Al-Khwarizmi
1400-1468
Inventor
print
Johannes Gutenberg
1452-1519
Polymath
mona lisa
Leonardo da Vinci
1473-1543
Astronomy
heliocentrism
Nicolaus Copernicus
1514-1564
Medicine
anatomy founder
Andreas Vesalius
1540-1603
Physics
father of electromagnetism
William Gilbert
1561-1626
Philosophy
scientific method
Francis Bacon
1564-1642
Astronomy
stellar observations
Galileo Galilei
1571-1630
Astronomy
3 laws of ...
Johannes Kepler
1578-1657
Medicine
blood circulation
William Harvey
1579-1644
Chemistry
pneumatic chemistry
Johann van Helmont
1596-1650
Philosophy
i think, therefore I am
Rene Descartes
1623-1662
Mathematics
fluid mechanics, #pressure
Blaise Pascal
1627-1691
Chemistry
P*V = constant
Robert Boyle
1629-1695
Mathematics
game of chance
Christiann Huygens
1632-1723
Microbiology
microscope
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
1635-1703
Polymath
F = k X (springs)
Robert Hooke
1642-1727
Physics
apple on head
Sir Isaac Newton
1656-1742
Astronomy
...'s comet
Edmund Halley
1663-1729
Inventor
steam engine
Thomas Newcomen
1686-1736
Physics
Temperature
Daniel Fahrenheit
1706-1790
Polymath
lightning rod
Benjamin Franklin
1728-1799
Chemistry
latent heat
Joseph Black
1731-1810
Chemistry
density of earth
Henry Cavendish
1733-1804
Chemistry
oxygen
Joseph Priestley
1736-1819
Inventor
better steam engine
James Watt
1736-1806
Physics
# electricity
Charles de Coulomb
1740-1810
Inventor
hot air balloon
Joseph Montgolfier
1742-1786
Chemistry
organic acids, O, W ,H , Ba, Cl, Mo
Karl Wilhelm Scheele
1743-1794
Chemistry
metric system
Antoine Lavoisier
1745-1827
Chemistry
battery inventor
Count Alessandro Volta
1749-1823
Medicine
vacine
Edward Jenner
1766-1844
Physics
colour blindness
John Dalton
1755-1836
Physics
electric current
Andre-Marie Ampere
1776-1856
Chemistry
atoms in a mole
Amedo Avogadro
1778-1850
Chemistry
Gas laws
Joseph Gay-Lussac
1791-1871
Polymath
father of computer
Charles Babbage
1791-1867
Physics
...'s cage
Michael Faraday
1809-1881
Biology
evolution
Charles Darwin
1818-1920
Physics
# energy
James Joule
1822-1895
Microbiology
heat treatment of food
Louis Pasteur
1822-1884
Biology
inheritance
Johann Gregor Mendel
1822-1900
Inventor
combustion engine
Jean-Joseph Lenoir
1824-1907
Physics
Temperature
Lord Kelvin
1831-1879
Physics
unification of electromagnetic laws
James Clerk Maxwell
1833-1896
Inventor
dynamite
Alfred Nobel
1834-1900
Inventor
combustion engine in cars
Wilhelm Gottlieb Daimler
1834-1907
Chemistry
classification of elements
Dmitri Mendeleev
1845-1923
Physics
X-ray
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
1847-1931
Inventor
light bulb
Thomas Alva Edison
1847-1922
Inventor
Call me maybe
Alexander Graham Bell
1852-1908
Physics
# radiation
Antoine-Henri Becquerel
1854-1915
Microbiology
Gram staining
Paul Ehrlich
1856-1943
Inventor
# magnetism
Nikola Tesla
1856-1940
Physics
electron
Sir John Joseph Thomson
1856-1939
Philosophy
everything is sex
Sigmund Freud
1857-1894
Physics
Electro-magnetic waves
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
1858-1947
Physics
...'s constant
Max Planck
1863-1944
Chemistry
Hard plastics
Leo Baekeland
1866-1945
Biology
chromosomes
Thomas Hunt Morgan
1867-1934
Chemistry
Radiation
Marie Curie
1871-1937
Chemistry
Nuclear physics
Ernest Rutherford
c. 1870 - 1950
Inventor
flight
The Wright Brothers
1847-1937
Inventor
Radio
Guglielmo Marconi
1877-1956
Chemistry
isotopes
Frederick Soddy
1879-1955
Physics
relativity
Albert Einstein
1881-1955
Medicine
penicillin
Alexander Fleming
1882-1945
Inventor
Rocketry
Robert Goddard
1885-1962
Physics
atomic structure
Niels Bohr
1887-1961
Physics
...'s cat
Erwin Schrodinger
1887-1915
Physics
atomic number
Henry Moseley
1889-1953
Astronomy
's telescope
Edwin Hubble
1891-1974
Physics
neutron
Sir James Chadwick
1891-1941
Medicine
insulin
Frederick Banting
1892-1987
Physics
wave-particle duality
Louis de Broglie
1901-1954
Physics
radioactivity
Enrico Fermi
1901-1954
Physics
...'s uncertainty principle
Werner Heisenberg
1901-1994
Chemistry
quantum chemistry
Linus Carl Pauling
1904-1967
Physics
nuke
Robert Oppenheimer
1907-1996
Inventor
jet engine
Sir Frank Whittle
1908-
Physics
hydrogen bomb
Edward Teller
1910-1989
Physics
transistor
William Shockley
1912-1954
Computer science
father of AI
Alan Turing
1914-1995
Medicine
polio
Jonas Salk
1920-1958
Chemistry
X-ray crystallography
Rosalind Franklin
1928-
Biology
DNA
James Dewey Watson
1942-
Physics
theory of everything
Stephen Hawking
1955-
Computer science
www
Tim Berners-Lee
+1
Level 83
Nov 6, 2015
That's not how philosophy is spelled.
+1
Level 73
Nov 6, 2015
Wow, thanks, adjusted. Copy/pasting is fun if you start correctly :-)
+1
Level 74
Nov 7, 2015
Excellent quiz.
+1
Level 73
Nov 12, 2015
Added an extra column of hints to improve scores
+1
Level 71
Nov 11, 2015
Philosophy is still misspelled.
+1
Level 73
Nov 12, 2015
fixed now.
+1
Level 69
Nov 26, 2015
Great Quiz, I enjoyed it!

might think about adding Richard Feynman, and/or Wernher Von Braun

+1
Level 73
Nov 27, 2015
Hey, thx for enjoying it. This is a list from extracted from a book (see header), so I'll keep the list as it is.
+1
Level 64
Sep 11, 2016
I got Gilbert and Democritus but forgot Tesla and Pascal. Wow
+1
Level 67
Dec 26, 2018
41/100 knew about 17 more of them (name=field connection) after reading the answers. Got 5 that were low scorers : ) (max 20% montgolfier, vanleeuwenhoek, hertz, becquerel and coulomb) Couldnt think of pasteur, franklin and hippocrates though....
+3
Level 80
Jun 14, 2021
"Leonardo" should be sufficient....
+1
Level 74
Jun 14, 2021
Christiaan Huygens is misspelled. I also think Boltzmann should have been on this list.
+1
Level 82
Jun 14, 2021
I might have gotten Huygens if the clue were optics or pendulum clock. The clue given? No chance. Also, some spelling leeway on the microscope guy would have been appreciated.
+1
Level 82
Jun 14, 2021
Also, a note about what # means in a clue would be useful. I missed all but one of those ... probably would have gotten all but one with an explanation.
+1
Level 56
Jun 15, 2021
I think Hawking is dead now
+1
Level 67
Jun 17, 2021
Anyone else try Murphy's Law?