Pairs #37 (Legalese Edition)

Select the other half of each pair or expression. Assume the word “and” (or an ampersand) between the hint and the answer.

Please read the sticky comment for information that may help you complete the quiz.

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Quiz by arjaygee
Last updated: May 11, 2024
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First submittedMay 11, 2024
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by and on behalf of. Near-synonyms, but can be used to indicate a signatory is becoming party to an agreement on their own behalf, rather than under duress from a third party.
keep in confidence
keep in confidence and refrain from disclosing. Language frequently found in confidentiality agreements that appears to be redundant.
construe and interpret. Synonyms or near-synonyms.
do and perform. Synonyms, usually used in reference to fulfilling the obligations of a contract.
cease and terminate. Near-synonyms.
then and in that event. If the relevant situation arises.
save and except. A clause used in land transfers, statutes and other legal instruments to specify a condition or restriction and to exclude the applicability of the restriction in specific situations. Example: a tract of land deeded save and except gas, oil and mineral rights.
goods and chattels. Generally, tangible, movable personal property, although the precise definition can differ from one jurisdiction to another.
make and enter into. Synonyms. One simultaneously makes and enters into a contract or other agreement upon signing it.
over and above. A description of work discovered during the completion of a contract that falls within the scope of the project, is necessary for the project to be completed, but is not covered by the terms of the contract.
good and tenable. A phrase used in leases to describe the condition in which the premises (or elements thereof) must be kept by the landlord or the tenant, e.g., “to keep and maintain the main structure and all exterior parts, including the roof in ‘good and tenable repair’.”
act and deed. A formally delivered written instrument that memorializes a bargain or transaction. At one time, signatories of a legal instrument were required to touch the seal and declare, “I deliver this as my act and deed.”
finish and complete. Near-synonyms sometimes used in reference to the fulfillment of contractual obligations.
drunk and disorderly. A description of conduct, often criminalized, combining public drunkenness with behavior that is noisy, offensive or violent.
money had
money had and received. A type of lawsuit where one person sues another to recover money that was paid by mistake or under compulsion, or for a consideration that failed.
representations and warranties. A representation is an assertion as to a fact, i.e., an assertion that a statement is true. A warranty is a promise of indemnity if the assertion is false.
just and equitable. A pair of words describing the goal of, for example, property settlements, with “just” referring to moral rightness and “equitable” referring to fairness to all parties.
law and order. A state in which people generally obey the law and behave in an organized and peaceful way.
perform and discharge. Creating a contract creates legal obligations on the contracting parties. Fulfillment of those obligations is called “performance.” Discharge of a contract occurs (among other modes) when both parties have performed (fulfilled) their contractual obligations.
final and binding. Legally non-appealable.
ways and means. Methods for raising the revenue to fund a government.
acknowledge and agree. To acknowledge a contract (for example) is to be aware of its existence. To agree to the contract is to accept its terms.
unless and until. A rather odd legal doublet that seems redundant despite not consisting of two near-synonyms, as “unless” used alone will often suffice. According to one source, “unless” expresses the hope or expectation that the condition will be satisfied, while “until” signals that it might not be.
by and with. A phrase used twice in the U.S. Constitution, when describing the Senate’s role in providing advice and consent for presidential appointments and treaty making.

“… the President shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur.”
illegal and void. A description of some legally unenforceable contracts. A contract may be just illegal, just void, or both illegal and void … depending on circumstances. A void contract is invalid because it lacks legal force, e.g., a contract with a minor. An illegal contract is invalid because it violates a legal statute, e.g., a murder-for-hire contract.
enter into
in that event
on behalf of
refrain from disclosing
Level 67
May 11, 2024
Many of the pairs in this quiz are examples of what are known as “legal doublets.” Legal doublets are standardized phrases used in English legal language.

In many cases, the two elements of the pair are either synonyms or near-synonyms, e.g., “null and void.”

While at first blush this practice may seem odd, the use of doublets came about after the Norman conquest of England as the country transitioned from using Old English in legal documents to using Latin and Law French. To ensure all parties to an agreement understood their legal obligations, lawyers decided to duplicate some terms, using one English word and its linguistic counterpart in Law French or “Frenchified” Latin.

Over time, everyday English absorbed some 10,000 Norman French words as it evolved into Middle English, and both language and culture evolved past the point where most things could be specifically identified as having Anglo-Saxon or Norman French origins. Even so, the use of legal doublets continues.