Social Psychology

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Quiz by megan92
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Last updated: November 12, 2013
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First submittedNovember 12, 2013
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The sense of having a distinct identity; of being apart from other people and things:
Self
Cognitive structure by which we organize knowledge, belief, past experience:
Schemas
Characteristic emotional thought and behavior patterns; consistent over time:
Personality
Compare with others to learn about myself, We prefer to compare against similar others:
Self-Evaluation
Compare with others to inspire myself to do better. o Highly goal-motivated, competitive people likely to make upward comparisons, but upward comparisons can be threatening rather than inspiring:
Self-Improvement
Compare with others to feel better about myself.
Self- Enhancement
Locus of Control: Your life is controlled by chance or outside forces
External
Locus of Control: You are the master of your fate
Internal
Knowledge of a group membership. Value and emotional significance of that group membership:
Social Identity
Feeling of competency on a task:
Self-Efficacy
greater persistence, less anxiety, less depression:
High self-Efficacy
People’s evaluations of their own worth: that is, the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent:
Self-Esteem
Directions: Compare with others who are better
Upward
Directions: Compare with others who are worse
Downward
Directions: Compare with others who are about the same
Lateral
When explaining the behavior of others, we attribute their behavior to internal factors and we ignore external factors. We overestimate the influence of personality. We underestimate the power of the situation:
Fundamental Attribution Error
Our judgment of objects or people may change depending on what we compare them to:
Contrast effects
The way a problem is framed can greatly affect decisions. In decision making, whether a proposition is presented (or framed) in such that it appears to represent the potential for a loss or a gain:
Framing Effects
Stereotypes, beliefs, mood. A procedure or frequently activated are more likely to come to mind and thus will be used in interpreting social events. Has a major impact on the attitudes and behavior of many people- even of seasoned professionals in life-and-death situations in the real world. For brief periods, at least, we can “become” whomever or whatever pops into our mind:
Priming
The more reasons we can come up with for a behavior, the less certain we are of any single reason:
Discounting Principle
When inhibitory causes are present, we become more certain of our facilitative cause:
Augmenting Principle
More likely to make dispositional attributions:
Individualistic Culture
As observers, we commit the Fundamental Attribution Error. As actors, we explain our own behavior using situational attributions:
Actor observer effect
Beliefs that lead to their own fulfillment. The processes by which expectations or stereotypes lead people to treat others in a way that makes them confirm their expectations. Occurs when we act on our initial impressions of others in a way that makes their behavior conform to those impressions:
Self- Fulfilling Prophecy
Expectations lead to behavior that causes others to confirm expectations:
Behavior COnfirmation
the tendency for neutral and irrelevant information to weaken a judgment or impression:
Dilution Effect
Order of information shapes judgment of others:
Primacy effect
More likely to make situational attributions:
Collectivist Culture
The tendency to seek confirmation of initial impressions or beliefs:
Confirmation Bias
Explaining others’ behavior. When an ordinary person attempts to explain someone else’s behavior:
Attributes
Internal. Actors who saw themselves from the observer’s point of view were more likely to explain their own behavior:
Dispositional attributes
External. Observers who saw the world from the point of view of the actors were more likely to explain behavior:
Situational attributes
The actor’s behavior. Does he/she always behave in this manner, in other situations, and at other times?
Consistency
Compared to other situations. Is he or she the only one to behave in this manner?
Distinctiveness
compared to other people. Do others behave in the same way in the same situation?
Consensus
A tendency for individuals to make dispositional attributions for their successes and situational attributions for their failures:
Self-Serving Bias
Overestimate likelihood of good things happening. Underestimate likelihood of bad things happening:
Unrealistic Optimism
We think we’re better than average in important, subjective, socially desirable things (downward comparison):
Better than Average
We over estimate how much others agree with us (lateral comparison):
False Consensus Effect
Take credit for successes but blame someone or something for failures:
Attributional Self- Serving Bia
When our attitudes are weak or unclear, the acts we freely commit give us clues about how strongly we feel:
Self-Perception Theory
Start out doing it for love (intrinsic motivation), Get paid for it, Attribute to reward (extrinsic motivation):
Over Justification
We feel tension when two simultaneously accessible cognitions are psychologically inconsistent. We are motivated to reduce this tension. Motivation is especially strong when self-concept is threatened:
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Moral, Competent, Able to predict our own behavior:
Self-Concept
Personal responsibility and choice means decisions can produce dissonance. Upgrade chosen option and downgrade unchosen one:
Post Decision Dissonance
Not attended to, activated without conscious awareness:
Implicit
a general bias in which a favorable or unfavorable general impression of a person affects our inferences and future expectations about that person:
Halo Effect
Attended to, acknowledged, stated:
Explicit
Many everyday behaviors are automatic (habit), Salient attitudes, Experience=Stronger attitudes:
Potent
Theory of Planned Behavior:
Specific
We fit into a role- play the behaviors expected as part of that role- and become the role:
Role Playing
Compliance with small request= compliance with large request:
Foot-in-the-door Phenomenon
Evaluative reaction toward something or someone. Favorable or unfavorable feeling, thought, or action (evaluative reaction). A special type of belief that is emotional and evaluative components; in a sense, an attitude is a stored evaluation- good or bad- of an object:
Attitude
Behavior that is directed toward harming other living beings motivated to avoid harm. Any form of behavior directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment:
Agression
Aggression is the goal. Intentional harm done for the purpose of inflicting harm (ex. A jealous man kills his wife and her lover):
Hostile
A means to an end. Intentional harm for purpose other than the desire to inflict harm. (ex. Prison warden executes a criminal, A hunter kills an animal for a trophy):
Instrumental
Amygdala, Testosterone (affects physical aggression, Relational aggression), Alcohol, Pain and discomfort:
Biological Factors
Grandiose view of personal superiority, Inflated sense of entitlement, Low empathy toward others, Linked with high but unstable self-esteem:
Personality/ Narcissistic Personality
Frustration (blocking a goal-directed behavior) triggers a readiness to aggress. May displace- Redirect aggression toward a safer or more socially acceptable target. Explains hostile aggression:
Frustration-Aggression Theory
Arises from social comparison. Perception that one is less well-off than others:
Relative Deprivation
Pain, Provocation, Heat
Aversive Experiences
Weapons, Violent media
Aggressive Cues
Lessened response to exposure
Desensitization
Ways of behaving socially that we learn implicitly from culture:
Scripts
Aggression is reduced by 'releasing' aggressive energy. Doesn't work.
Catharsis
A mental shortcut; it is a simple, often only approximate, rule or strategy for solving a problem:
Judgmental Heuristic
We focus on the similarity of one object to another to infer that the first object acts like the second one:
Representative Heuristic
Refers to judgments based on how easy it is for us to bring specific examples to mind:
Availability Heuristic
A group with which we do not identify; the members of which we tend to see as being all the same:
Outgroup
Our group, the one with which we identify and feel we belong:
Ingroup
Our tendency (usually erroneous) to overestimate our powers of prediction once we know the outcome of a given event:
Hindsight Bias
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