IB Computer Science Topic 1.2 - System Design Basics

Guess the terms of these definitions
Source: Core Computer Science, except for one definition, which is from Chron
Some definitions are hidden until other definitions have been answered in order to avoid disclosure of answers to other definitions as much as possible.
Quiz by KRQC2000
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Last updated: May 3, 2018
First submittedMarch 25, 2018
Times taken105
Average score31.6%
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Definition
Term
Components of a Computer System
Physical element, e.g. screen, CPU
Hardware
Series of instructions that can be understood by CPU
Software
Can communicate and work with a computer, e.g. I/O devices, printers
Peripheral device
Where computer systems are interconnected to for sharing resources and data
Network
People used in an organization, business, or economy
Human resources
Device that only consists of keyboard, monitor, and network card
Dumb terminal
Heavily depends on server to which it is connected
Thin client
Holds saved data, which are received by the client
Server
Similarly to how a post office manages mail/post, manages email flow in and out of network, checks that an email address is valid, allows users to access emails, etc.
Email server
Accepts incoming data packets, reads their destination address, distributes them across networks
Router
Attributes names to network addresses; finds web address from link.
Domain Name System server
Controls data flow access among network entities
Firewall
Clients request information and servers perform tasks in order to provide information
Client-server
How well an IT system functions
Reliability
Protecting completeness and accuracy of data
Integrity
When only one copy is updated
Inconsistency
Protection of hardware, software, peripherals, and computer networks from unauthorized access. Can be achieved with biometrics, passwords, firewalls, etc.
Security
Controlling how and to what extent data is used and distributed
Privacy
Ideas, discoveries, pictures, and other works protected by copyright laws from unauthorized and illegal reproduction
Intellectual property
Disparity between people with and without access to IT systems/infrastructures, due to economic costs, financial costs, lack of literacy, language skills, and basic resources
Digital Divide/Equality of Access
Using IT to monitor individuals or groups of people with or without their knowledge -> also a privacy issue
Surveillance
Procedures and measures that promote appropriate use of computers, networks, information systems, and technologies
IT Policies
Predefined technical rules and conventions that developers should follow. Allow for compatibility, easy communication, and interoperability.
Standards/Protocols
Appropriate behaviour in a digital world, including using IT ethically, respectfully, and without threat
Digital citizenship
System Design and Analysis
Individuals, teams, groups, or organizations that have an interest in the development of a product or might be affected by outcome of project
Stakeholders
Person who will ultimately use product or system
End-user
Direct face-to-face procedure aiming to obtain reliable and valid data verbally from person or group (of stakeholders); however, the process is time-consuming
Interview
Type of above that is strictly standardized with a set of prepared questions; not really flexible.
Structured interview
Questions are carefully constructed to obtain unambiguous results. Time saving unlike above two
Questionnaires
Questionnaires consisting of Yes/No, short response, and box checking questions that are easy to analyze and summarize
Closed questionnaires
Questionnaires consisting of free response questions that allow greater depth of responses, although difficult to interpret or summarize
Open questionnaires
Spending time in different departments to see where current procedures and processes could be made more efficient, as well as where obstructions occur. Independent of user bias but time-consuming
Direct observation
When people change behaviours due to above
Hawthorne Effect
Involves detailed examination of current system, analysis of functions and procedures, studying business and system documents
Examining current systems
Identification, retrieval, and management of various sources in order to find information on a topic, potential areas of interest for further studies, derive conclusions, and develop guidelines for practices
Literature search
Examining this includes analysis of competitive factors, benefits, vulnerabilities, successful characteristics, breakthroughs introduced, design features, user/stakeholder acceptance
Competing products
Ability to manage resources and employees effectively to gain advantage over competitors.
Organizational capabilities
Result of successful IT system
Competitive advantage
Defines specific customer requirements of system
Requirements specification document
Describes data processing system, including flow of data through any individual programs involved but without details
System flow chart
Shows how data moves through system and data stores used. Does not specify type of data storage and type of data.
Data flow diagram
Describes (sub-)functions of system, as well as relationships between modules of computer program. Straightforward, can split large problem into smaller ones.
Structure chart
Process of designing system modules individually and then combining the modules to form solution to overall problem
Modular design
Working or non-working preliminary version of final product that gives an idea of how final product will work.
Prototype
Repetition of steps for specific number of times or until operations yield expected results, usually following difficulties.
Iteration
Person or organization paying for project
Client
Human Interaction with the System
Potential to accomplish user goals.
Usability
Eight quality components of above
Complexity/Simplicity
Effectiveness
Efficiency
Error
Learnability
Memorability
Readability/Comprehensibility
Satisfaction
Design of safe and comfortable products, systems, or processes for people
Ergonomics
Potential of meeting needs of as many individuals possible, especially those with impairments (loss/abnormality of psychological, physiological, anatomical structure or function) or disabilities (inability to perform activities normally)
Accessibility
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