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Consists of hardware and software components and follows Input, Process, Output, Storage model
The "brain" of the computer, processes data to information according to instructions
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Controls retrieval of instructions from primary memory as well as sequence of execution
Control Unit (CU)
Performs all basic arithmetic, logical, I/O operations
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
Small location that can hold data
Holds address of where processed data will need to be stored
Memory Address Register (MAR)
Holds data that will be taken to address that the above is holding.
Memory Data Register (MDR)
Directly accessible by CPU, holds both data and instructions that are running on computer system.
One type of above. Stores executing program instructions and data in unique memory locations that each have address and content. Stored data can be overwritten. Volatile (if power is lost, so are unsaved changes).
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Other type of two rows above. Like above but holds and data cannot be overwritten (even if power is lost) used to boot computer
Read-Only Memory (ROM)
Preferred for main RAM of computer system
Dynamic RAM (DRAM)
Faster but more expensive than above
Static RAM (SRAM)
Divided into L1 and L2, small amount of above that holds most commonly used and accessed information from RAM, making computer system faster. Located closer to CPU than RAM
Cache located on processor itself
Cache placed between primary memory and processor
Four stages of machine instruction cycle
Fetch (from primary memory to CU)
Decode (in CU)
Execute (by CPU)
Store results in primary memory
May be written to like RAM but non-volatile at the same time. Relatively slow, but high data capacity. Examples of devices: Hard drive, USB, Floppy disc
Operating and Application Systems
Controls computer's hardware resources and provides services for computer programs. Examples: Windows, Mac, Linux
Operating System (OS)
Responsibility for communicating directly with peripheral devices such as keyboard, monitor, mouse
Ensuring that one application does not interfere with memory used by other applications so that the latter does not stop functioning or have its data overwritten.
Efficient allocation of resources so that application can run as effectively as possible on computer
Managing connections to and interactions with networks of other computer systems to allow sharing of resources
Keeping track of files stored in memory and discs, as well as files in use by applications
Username/password, magnetic cards, biometric, etc.
Keep trace of activity of any user in computer system
Installed by manufacturer, aims to complete tasks.
Produces documents. Includes composition, editing, formatting, and sometimes printing. Example: Microsoft Word
Organizes and analyzes data in rows and columns. Also performs mathematical calculations, financial and statistical operations, and graph creation. Example: Microsoft Excel
Organized collection of data and information in the form of rows/records and columns/fields.
Manages, creates, modifies, and extracts information from above. Example: Microsoft Access
Database management system (DBMS)
Can access, retrieve, and present content (including web pages, images, videos, etc.) on World Wide Web. Example: Chrome
Allows exchange of digital messages between author and recipient(s), regardless of whether either is active.
Commonly used by engineers and designers, allows creation and modification of a design, which can be viewed from any angle and can convey information on materials and dimensions. Example: Fusion 360
Computer Aided Design (CAD)
User can edit digital images with tools such as moving, cropping, scaling, and erasing. Example: Photoshop
Graphic processing software
Allows user to interact with applications in numerous ways.
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Commands are typed into it. Example: CMD, Terminal
Command line interface (CLI)
Where buttons, icons, menus, and other I/O elements are placed
Displays list of commands to be chosen by user to perform various functions
Communicates information to user, allowing them to respond by choosing an option from specific choices. Example: "Do you want to save changes to …?"
Basic unit of information in computer systems, carries only either 1 or 0. Eight of these make one Byte.
Uses ten digits (0-9) to represent any number regardless of size
Decimal number system
Uses two digits (0, 1) to represent numbers. Most widely used number system in CS. Examples: 1=1, 10=2, 100=4, …
Binary number system
Where positive numbers start with 0 and negative numbers start with 1
Uses 16 digits (0-F), A=10, B=11, …, F=15
Hexadecimal number system
Character-encoding scheme based on English alphabet. Such characters have values from 0-127, inclusive
Character-encoding scheme like above but with more symbols and non-English characters
Sequence of characters
Represented with RGB values. Example: 3366CC
Simple Logic Gates
Real electrical circuit simulating boolean operators
Both inputs must be true/on
One or both inputs may be true/on
Inverse of input
Inverse of operation #1
Inverse of operation #2
One input may be true/on but not both
Represents input and output of complex logical/boolean statements