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Nodes/Computers are connected to central node (computer or hub)
Nodes/Computers connected in a circle; no central node
"Bus" connects all devices through common cable
Computer system or software application that provides service to other computer systems on same network
Requests service from above connected to same network.
Connection point for devices on a single network that transfers data from one device to all other connected devices, slowing down network
Like above but knows which port to send data to
More sophisticated than above two, can join multiple networks and acts as intermediary between networks for effective and efficient data exchange between devices
Connects computer systems within small area such as house, office building, or school, allowing use of peripheral devices such as printers and external hard drives by connected computer systems.
Local Area Network (LAN)
Similar to above but wireless; easier for laptop and mobile devices but less secure
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN)
Connects computer systems within large geographical area, such as cities, countries, or network of contries.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Allows large storage devices to be accessed by servers conveniently
Storage Area Network (SAN)
Collection of private computer networks within company, school, or organization, whose main purpose is to facilitate communication between individuals or work groups and to improve data sharing.
Global network of a large array of computers and networks connected together
Utilizes above to selectively authorize users to specific LAN(s) or WAN(s); to everyone else, LAN or WAN in question is private.
Consists of websites and webpages, and support for services such as email and file transfer
World Wide Web (WWW)
Makes "tunnelled" network connection through Internet or any public network. Enables device to exchange and access data across Internet as if it were directly connected to a private network.
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
Interconnects devices centred around one person's workspace, maximum 10m range.
Personal Area Network (PAN)
Uses distributed network architecture where all computer systems (nodes or peers) in network are decentralized and are clients and servers at the same time.
Provide common international "language" that enables compatibility for all computer systems globally
Most widely used example of above. Reference model that aims to facilitate communication across variety of systems.
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model
Seven layers of above. First three mostly hardware, last four mostly software.
Hierarchical protocol model that models and represents all functionality required for successful communication between users.
Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Four abstraction layers of above
International rules that ensure data transfer or communication between systems.
Portion of message that is transmitted through network. Has data such as check digits and destination address.
Accuracy of data following input, transmission, storage, or processing
Identity of sender has been validated. Can be proven by data signatures.
Slowing down data flow rate in order to prevent overload of resources due to limited memory and bandwidth in network infrastructures
When request on network resources exceeds capacity
When two or more network competing actions are waiting for other to finish but neither does
Process to determine error
Ability to repair error
Theoretical speed of data in media
Actual transfer rate of data. Affected by interference, traffic, number of connected devices, errors, etc.
Created by slowest segment of network that affects above
Transfer rate of usable data
Extra digit added to numerical data
Reduction of bits by encoding data using fewer bits than original file/representation
Some loss of information, no way to get original file back. Examples: JPG, MPEG2
Reduces number of bits by identifying and then eliminating statistical redundancy. No loss of information.
Most common cabling in networks
Cheap to install, consists of two copper conductors. Used in networks as well as carrying TV signals.
Two wires twisted with each other. Easy and cheap to install
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable
Like above but pairs are wrapped. More difficult to install.
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
Carries beam of light, used for data transmission and telephone lines. Higher speeds with high security but very expensive.
Fibre optic cable
Used extensively for mobile telephone networks and LANs. Information transmitted through air. High bandwidth but lower than cables.
Uses microwave signals
Only for very short distances, cannot pass through objects. Directional.
Operates with various radio technologies.
Uses microwave radio to exchange data at very low power levels. Frequencies change regularly.
Wireless computer communication with lasers
Free space optics
Communication method where file is divided into packets before transmission. Each packet is sent to destination via different routes. Delays are minimal.
(Hardware Components for Wireless Networks)
Allows wireless connection to Internet
Provided by wireless router, allows wireless data transfer between device and network.
Wireless Access Point (WAP)
Required for devices to connect to wireless network
Significantly increase effective communication area of wireless network. Fixed, optional, or removable.
Connects to router or access point
(end Hardware Components)
(Software Components for Wireless Networks)
Protocol that allows server to automatically assign IP address to client device. Very effective and convenient.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Network security system that determines what data comes in/goes out of network or computer
"Name" of WLAN. Maximum 32 characters, case-sensitive.
Service Set Identification (SSID)
Operates or controls hardware of network card, acting as a translator to device.
Network Interface Card driver
Handles system resources with responsibility for managing all protocols, hardware, and applications to cooperate so that network can function properly
Operating System (OS)
Includes all software that prevents unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, etc. Includes access, but not limited to, control, firewall, anti-spyware, anti-tamper, antivirus.
Specifies set of protocols for accessing information over mobile wireless network, e.g. Internet access, email exchange. Supported by most operating systems
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
Application software used to find, retrieve, and display content on WWW, including web pages, text, images, audio, videos, etc.
(end Software Components)
Third generation of mobile telecommunication technology. Mobile networking and telecommunications technology used in wireless telephony, GPS and location based services, mobile Internet access, video calls, and mobile TV. More secure than 2G.
Fourth generation of mobile telecommunication technology; released after above. Used for mobile Internet access to laptops, smartphones, etc.
Type of above, as well as standard for wireless communication of high-speed data for smartphones. Goal: to be fast and to have large capacity
Long-Term Evolution (LTE)
Another type of above-above. Provides portable mobile broadband connectivity across cities or countries through many devices. Relatively low cost
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)
Fifth generation of mobile telecommunication technology. Not yet publicly available but aims to be faster than previous generations.
Can measure data and parameters such as temperature, sound, and pressure for physical or environmental reasons such as sampling, security, health-care monitoring, and underware measurements.
Necessary to prevent unauthorized data access during Internet use. Uses complex mathematical algorithms and keys to render message incomprehensible to unauthorized people. Two categories below.
Same key for encryption and decryption
Public key for encryption and private key for decryption
Based on this, networks permit access to certain devices. Consists of 12 digits or letters e.g. 1a:2b:3c:4d:5e:6f; what every network card has when manufactured.
Most common data encryption technique, provides data confidentiality. Adds processing overheads that slow down wireless connection. Cracking is possible but novice users cannot do so. Offers interoperability with older devices/access to legacy wireless device.
Wireless Equivalent Protocol (WEP)
Took over above as interim security measure. Uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) block cipher. Considered best protection but strong password still recommended
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA/WPA2)
Network security protocol specially designed to allow novice and residential users to securely operate wireless network. Requires router and compatible devices. Has known security weaknesses.