IB Computer Science Topic 4.3 - Introduction to Programming

Guess the terms of these definitions
Source: Core Computer Science
NB: For this subtopic, it may also be useful to practice developing algorithms and code in addition to this quiz.
Some definitions are hidden until other definitions have been answered in order to avoid disclosure of answers to other definitions as much as possible.
Quiz by KRQC2000
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Last updated: May 3, 2018
First submittedApril 12, 2018
Times taken76
Average score37.8%
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Definition
Term
Nature of Programming Languages
Basic abilities of computer: Add, Compare, Retrieve, Store
Fundamental operations
Combinations of above. Example: Finding maximum of four numbers
Compound operations
Meaning of code/construction of programming language
Semantics
"Grammar"/Rules of statement construction in programming language
Syntax
Commands/Words with special meanings. Examples: import, int, static
Keywords
Only language understood directly by computer, made of 1s and 0s => hard to write, debug, and maintain.
Machine language
Unlike above, allows development of instructions and reference to address locations with mnemonics; program development is easier but each language supports only one specific computer system.
Assembly language
Translates above to machine code
Assembler
Uses elements of natural language => easy to use, facilitates abstraction; program development is simpler, faster, and more understandable
High-level language
Translates entire source program to object program only once, returning syntax errors if any. Examples: Java, C++
Compiler
Unlike above, reads and translates one line of source program at a time. Examples: BASIC, Python
Interpreter
Handles code function on hardware platform.
Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
.class file compiled from Java source code. Fed into interpreter afterwards.
Java Virtual Machine bytecode
Use of Programming Languages
Stores data element, which can be changed during execution, of program. Has name and type i.e. int age;
Variable
Like above but cannot be modified during execution. Example: final double PI = 3.14159;
Constant
Performs calculations i.e. "+", "-", "*", "/", "%"
Operator
Has data and actions/methods.
Object
"=" / "=="
Equal to
"≠" / "!="
Not equal to
">"
Greater than
">="
Greater than or equal to
"<"
Less than
"<="
Less than or equal to
"/" / "div"
Integer part of quotient
"%" / "mod"
Remainder
Visibility of variable, i.e. specific part(s) of algorithm, such as a loop, that can access and retrieve data of variable.
Scope
Variable that is visible to entire program
Global variable
Unlike above, has limited scope
Local variable
Consists of multiple elements - which may be duplicate - such as objects and values, and comes with necessary operations/methods, such as add and remove, that programmer can immediately use to manipulate data. Example: ArrayList
Collection
Allows programmers to save time by taking advantage of existing code developed either by themselves or other programmers.
Code reuse
Contains sequence of instructions that perform specific and predefined task. More than one of this may be contained in software libraries that can be used by programs. Three examples below.
Sub-program
Simply performs task or executes commands
Procedure
May (get) or may not (void) return value
Method
Small section of program customized by programmer to perform a particular task.
Module
Information used in method, function, or procedure
Parameter
Passed into method, function, or procedure
Argument
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