Heirs to Rome

Many states in history have claimed that they were the spiritual continuation of the Roman Empire. For each convoluted claim, list the country to which it applies
Does not include the Byzantine Empire, or the Empire of Nicaea, but does include other splinter states that claimed to be a continuation of the Roman Empire, or claimed the throne of Constantinople.
Quiz by Kearsarge
Last updated: February 12, 2022
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First submittedOctober 6, 2021
Times taken730
Average score50.0%
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By Right of Conquest, ruling over Rumelia and having taken Constantinople
Ottoman Empire
Via the marriage of a East Roman Princess into the ruling family
Russian Empire/Muscovy
On his deathbed, Constantine I supposedly granted the Western Empire to this state
Papal States/ Vatican City
Restored the Western Roman Empire to its "former glory", received the title directly from (3), and claimed the title as the current ERE ruler was female and therefore not an Emperor.
Carolingian Empire
Ruled over a sizable portion of the lands owned by (4) in Germany, claimed to be a continuation of (4).
Holy Roman Empire
As a spiritual and defacto restoration of (5). ruling over much of its heartland
German Empire
As another successor to (5) , ruled by the same dynasty and from the same seat as the last dynasty to rule (5)
Austro-Hungarian Empire
Founded by exiled members of the Komneni Dynasty of the Eastern Roman Empire
Empire of Trebizond
Tied itself to Rome through its location and via ethnonationalist propaganda
Italian Empire
By right of conquest, having conquered Constantinople following the Fourth Crusade
Latin Empire
By right of conquest, having conquered most of Anatolia
Sultanate of Rum
Ruled by the brother of the last Byzantine Emperor
Despotate of (the) Morea
By right of conquest, having conquered Macedonia and Thessaly
Serbian Empire
By right of conquest, having conquered large parts of Macedonia, Moesia, and Greece
Bulgarian Empire
Rump empire ruled by a rival claimant to the Western Empire after the Western Empire collapsed and the seat was vacant
Empire of Nepos
Set up on an island by a rival claimant to the Byzantine throne in 1185
Kingdom of Cyprus
As a continuation of Byzantine government in western Greece/Albania
Despotate of Epirus
In national legends, the first ruler conquered the Western Empire and received the title of Roman Emperor
Kingdom of England
As a warlord state ruled by ethnic Latins in Northern France, and a localized continuation of "Roman" rule
Kingdom of Soissons
Ruler bought the title of Roman (Byzantine) Emperor from the son of the induvidual named in (12)
Kingdom of France
Short-lived unrecognized republic created in the Revolutions of 1848. Tied itself to Rome through location and ethnonationalist propoganda
Roman Republic(1849)
Second country that received claim on Byzantine Empire from son of induvidual named in (12) in that induviduals last will.
Spanish Empire
Continuation of Byzantine rule in the Crimean Peninsula
Principality of Theodoro
Tied itself to the Byzantine Empire through ethnonationalist propaganda, in particular, the Megali Idea
Kingdom of Greece
As a continuation of Latin/Moorish rule in Morocco following the collapse of the western Empire.
Mauro-Roman Kingdom
As a pseudo-continuation of Latin/Moorish rule in remote parts of Tunisia.
Kingdom of the Aures
Level 68
Oct 7, 2021
Added Soissons as the term King of the Romans is occasionally associated with Sygarius. I don't know if this was a legitimate attempt at claiming that they were a continuation of the Western Roman Empire, or just a later description that describes one of the last remaining areas under the control of Roman people in the west.

Also added France and Spain. I do find it kind of funny how Andreas Paleologios first sold his pretender claim to be the rightful heir to the Byzantine Empire to France, then handed the title out again in his last will to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain.

I did not include a few maybes. Someone might be able to make the argument that by trying to wrap themselves in Roman imperial styles and do everything except declare themselves Emperor, that Ostrogothic Italy should be on here, but I argue that as they accepted the Byzantine Emperor as the rightful Emperor, that acting in the duties of an Emperor and wearing imperial clothing is not enough for them to count.

Level 68
Dec 18, 2021
Other maybes that I did not add includes Russia/the USSR, as successor states to the Russian Empire, various governments following the German Empire, Turkey, as a successor state to the Ottomans.

With these, I decided that they do not directly claim to be Roman, but rather just the inheritors of the previous state. The German Empire and Austria-Hungary were included, even with that convoluted relationship as the title of Kaiser/Emperor is a direct descendent of the title of Roman Emperor, meaning a stronger connection to Rome in my mind. A bit arbitrary, but I had to draw the line somewhere.

I did consider adding states that broke away prior to the fall of Rome, in particular the Palmyrene Empire and Gallic Empire, but I then decided if I did that, an argument could be made to add a bunch of random short lived Roman Empires created by would be Emperors. The rump empire ruled by Julius Nepos gets a pass as it lasted a couple of years longer than the Western Empire

Level 68
Feb 12, 2022
Added two more, both from North Africa, and both pretty obscure. The Mauro-Roman Kingdom was a pseudo-continuation of roman rule in modern day Morocco, while the Kingdom of the Aures was a petty kingdom ruling around a fifth of modern day Tunisia. They are heirs to rome in their rulers titles. The first ruler of Aures declared himself Emperor of the Romans, while all the Mauro-Roman rulers stylized themselves as Kings of the Romans and Moors.
Level 61
Dec 24, 2021
Very nice quiz but needs a bit more time, like 5mins maybe
Level 81
Dec 24, 2021
This needs way more time.
Level 85
Dec 24, 2021
Good quiz -- the latin clue made me think the Latin Empire wasn't the answer.
Level 59
Jan 5, 2022
Great Quiz!

Wouldn't it be western Greece in #17.

Also could you accept Syagrius as Type-In for #19? I know that it's not really a name for the country, but i mainly know it as predecessor of Frankish Rule in that area and heard of Syagrius before (unlike his father Aegidius), but i never heard the names Kingdom of Soissons or Kingdom of the Romans.

Level 68
Jan 6, 2022
Fixed. #17, you are right on that one. Added Sygarius as a type-in.

Edit: Also added Syagrius, given that I misspelled the name.

Level 59
Jan 9, 2022
Level 73
Mar 16, 2023
nice quiz, but, talkin about the Roman Republic of 1849, you could not say that “Tied itself to Rome through location and ethnonationalist propoganda”

In fact, the constitution of the Roman Republic was absolutely advanced for his time, it foresaw, for example, religious freedom, universal suffrage, and the abolition of capital punishment