The "Rad/1K pop" column in the source really tells the story here.
The oil fields of North Dakota are more of a bright spot on this map than the Minneapolis metro region.
Also, the North Slope of Alaska is another clear example.
Lastly, the largest white spot in South America is in the Venezuelan oil fields.
1. Operational lighting. Due to most drilling and pumping taking place around the clock, and the hazardous conditions of an operating drill or rig, they are well lit all night. As the work areas are frequently in open-scaffolding type structures, more light spills out than would from an office building with more walls & tinted windows, etc.
2. Safety and Security. The areas around the actual site are illuminated much more brightly than your standard parking lots. Brighter lights helps with surveillance, monitoring, and preventing accidents or unauthorized access.
3. Oilfield/Boom Towns. Beside the fields, you'll frequently see accommodations, office, and entertainment centers spring up, adding their light.
4. Flaring and burning off gasses and fuels. Not as common or consistent as other lights, but noticeably adds to the light pollution due to its elevation and color.
The other two were both total surprises for me.
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