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First European Cities in History to Reach 100,000 People

Can you name the European cities that had reached a population of 100,000 by the year 1850?
According to 4000 Years of Urban Growth by Tertius Chandler.
Some of these cities no longer exist.
Both historical and modern-day names accepted.
Quiz by Dekkie
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Last updated: November 22, 2023
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First submittedOctober 7, 2023
Times taken20,437
Average score71.7%
Rating4.89
10:30
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Year
Country
City
525 BC
Italy
Rome
475 BC
Greece
Athens
450 BC
Italy
Syracuse
330 AD
Turkey
Istanbul
765 AD
Spain
Córdoba
1090
Spain
Seville
1130
Italy
Palermo
1190
France
Paris
1275
Italy
Venice
1280
Russia
Sarai-Berke
1410
Spain
Granada
1470
Turkey
Edirne
1490
Italy
Naples
1530
Russia
Moscow
1565
Belgium
Antwerp
1568
United Kingdom
London
1582
Italy
Milan
1590
Czech Republic
Prague
Year
Country
City
1600
Portugal
Lisbon
1612
Spain
Madrid
1620
Netherlands
Amsterdam
1660
France
Lyon
1694
Austria
Vienna
1720
Ireland
Dublin
1745
Germany
Berlin
1755
Russia
St. Petersburg
1780
Germany
Hamburg
1785
France
Marseille
1787
France
Bordeaux
1787
Spain
Barcelona
1790
Poland
Warsaw
1800
Denmark
Copenhagen
1808
United Kingdom
Glasgow
1809
United Kingdom
Liverpool
1810
United Kingdom
Edinburgh
1812
United Kingdom
Manchester
Year
Country
City
1819
United Kingdom
Birmingham
1822
United Kingdom
Bristol
1826
United Kingdom
Leeds
1829
Hungary
Budapest*
1831
Belgium
Brussels
1833
Italy
Turin
1836
United Kingdom
Sheffield
1839
Italy
Florence
1841
Netherlands
Rotterdam
1843
Poland
Wrocław
1845
Belgium
Ghent
1846
United Kingdom
Newcastle upon Tyne
1847
France
Rouen
1848
Italy
Genoa
1848
United Kingdom
Wolverhampton
1850
Germany
Munich
1850
Spain
Valencia
30 Comments
+14
Level 55
Oct 7, 2023
* = As you may or may not be aware, Budapest wasn't an unified city until 1873. For the sake of simplicity, I've decided to keep this city merged.
+6
Level 56
Oct 7, 2023
ROMA URBS AETERNA
+5
Level 81
Oct 7, 2023
I know this is super nitpicky but the second “I” in United KIngdom is capitalized in 1846.
+6
Level 55
Oct 7, 2023
Thanks for letting me know. Change pending.
+12
Level 43
Nov 6, 2023
Do you have a source for that?
+7
Level 77
Oct 7, 2023
Your quizzes are always wonderfully informative and thorough. They have plenty of information I don’t already know. I mean, who ever heard of that other Turkish city, or London? Took me forever to remember London existed…!
+10
Level 55
Oct 7, 2023
Thanks! Well, chances are that you kinda have to be history buff to get some of these. Edirne was the first Ottoman capital on European soil in the 14th and 15th century, which rapidly rose to prominence under their rule. Said city went into decline in the late 17th century and dropped under 100,000 again until the late 1970s.
+2
Level 72
Oct 8, 2023
It also boasts a very large mosque.
+3
Level 56
Nov 6, 2023
I only recently discovered that that other Turkish city is Adrianople, which is (fortunately) a type-in. If that means anything more to you...
+6
Level 83
Oct 9, 2023
I don't think I would ever have thought to put Rouen or Wolverhampton but on reflection they make total sense... Strange to think so many industrial cities are still significant (in terms of population, manufacturing, etc) but some absolutely are not.
+6
Level 55
Oct 9, 2023
The impact of the Industrial Revolution in the U.K. can definitely be seen here, with the rise of many cities in the north of the country.

Rouen was among France's biggest cities for the longest time, even serving as the 2nd or 3rd largest city in the entire country at times. Eventually though, the city started to fall behind in terms of population and stagnated. By 1900, Rouen had already fallen to being the 12th largest in France compared to being the 4th largest city in 1850.

+2
Level 87
Oct 13, 2023
Since you generally accept native names, please allow "Siracusa".
+1
Level 55
Oct 14, 2023
That should already work.
+4
Level 52
Nov 6, 2023
51/53. I knew the missing Russian city was the ancient capital of the Golden Horde. But I couldn't remember its name. Haven't played Civ4 for years.
+3
Level 72
Nov 6, 2023
Nice quiz. Since some older names are accepted can you accept Adrianople as well? I feel that name is much better known than the current Edirne given its historical context.
+3
Level 55
Nov 6, 2023
Thanks! Adrianople should already work.
+2
Level 54
Nov 6, 2023
52/53 I missed Wolwehampton
+1
Level 68
Nov 6, 2023
Guessing Sarajevo helped with the Russian one! :D
+1
Level 66
Nov 6, 2023
Why Sarajevo?
+2
Level 73
Nov 15, 2023
Probably tried to guess random slavic cities in that period of frantic desparation that takes over common sense once the timer gets below 30 seconds. Happens to the best of us ;)
+1
Level 66
Nov 6, 2023
Sarai-Berke was the capital of the Golden Horde (Ulug Ulus or Kipchak Khanate) up until the 15th century. It was no way a Russian city. Russians paid tribute to the Khanate
+2
Level 55
Nov 6, 2023
"Country" indicates the modern-day boundary the corresponding cities were within. Sarai was in fact within modern-day Russia.
+1
Level 60
Nov 6, 2023
Please accept Óbuda if you accept Buda and Pest, it was one of the three cities involved in the merge.
+2
Level 55
Nov 7, 2023
I believe I might've had it added before this quiz got featured. Might've accidentally gotten removed.
+3
Level 66
Nov 8, 2023
Got Wolverhampton, missed Milan :/

Anyone else always get Palermo and Parma confused? I was typing Catania and all sorts, need to brush up on my Italian cities... (Great quiz btw)

+1
Level 67
Nov 25, 2023
Huh, I would've expected Stockholm, (Veliky) Novgorod, and maybe Utrecht to be here
+1
Level 18
Jan 10, 2024
Well does Leningrad count as a historical name for St. Ptrsbrg?

(I was too lazy to spell the whole thing out)

+1
Level 74
Apr 11, 2024
But not too lazy to explain your laziness
+1
Level 79
Mar 7, 2024
49/53. not too bad. Missed Rouen though :/