A Level PE - The Cardiovascular System

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Last updated: February 3, 2018
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First submittedJanuary 24, 2018
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The capacity of the heart to generate its own impulses
A small mass of cardiac muscle found in the wall of the right atrium that generates the heartbeat
Sinoatrial Node
This node relays the impulse between the upper and lower sections of the heart
Atrioventricular Node
When the heart contracts
A collection of heart muscle cells that transmit electrical impulses from the AVN via the bundle branches to the ventricles
Bundle of His
Muscle fibres that conduct impulses in the walls of the ventricles
Purkinje fibres
Part of the autonomic nervous system that speeds up heart rate
Part of the autonomic nervous system that decreases heart rate
The most important part of the brain as it regulates processes that keep us alive such as breathing and heart rate
Medulla oblongata
Tiny structures in the carotid arteries and aortic arch that detect changes in blood acidity caused by an increase/decrease in the concentration of carbon dioxide
Special sensors in tissues in the aortic arch, carotid sinus, heart and pulmonary vessels that respond to changes in blood pressure to either increase or drecrease heart rate
Sensory nerve endings in the muscles, tendons and joints that detect changes in muscle movement
A stress hormone that is release by the sympathetic nerves and cardiac nerve during exercise which causes an increase in heart rate
The volume of blood pumped out by the hearts ventricles in each contraction
Stroke volume
When the heart relaxes to fill with blood
Diastole phase
The percentage of blood pumped out by the left ventricle per beat
Ejection fraction
The volume of blood pumped out by the heart ventricles per minute
Cardiac output
The thickening of the muscular wall of the heart so it becomes bigger and stronger; also can mean a larger ventricular cavity
Cardiac hypertrophy
A decrease in resting heart rate to below 60 beats per minute
Occurs when arteries harden and narrow as they become clogged up by fatty deposits
A fatty deposit found in the inner lining of an artery
Chest pain that occurs when the blood supply through the coronary arteries to the muscles of the heart is restricted
Occurs when the blood supply to the brain is cut off
Where the athlete is able to meet the oxygen demand with the oxygen supply
Steady state
The force exerted by the blood against the blood vessel wall
Blood pressure
The pressure in the arteries when the ventricles are contracting
Systolic pressure
The pressure in the arteries when the ventricles are relaxing
Diastolic pressure
The return of blood to the right side of the heart via the vena cava
Venous return
The fluid part of blood that surrounds blood cells and transports them
An iron-containing pigment found in red blood cells, which combines with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin
An iron-containing muscle pigment in slow-twitch muscles which has a higher affinity for oxygen than haemoglobin
'Powerhouse' of the cell where energy production occurs
When an increase in blood carbon dioxide and a decrease in pH results in a reduction of the affinity haemoglobin for oxygen
Bohr shift
A measure of acidity
The redistribution of cardiac output
Vascular shunt mechanism
The widening of the blood vessels to increase the flow of blood into the capillaries
The narrowing of the blood vessels to reduce blood flow into the capillaries
The difference between the oxygen content of the arterial blood arriving at the muscles and the venous blood leaving the muscles
Arterio-venous difference
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