Edexcel Politics 10. Comparative Approaches

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Last updated: March 16, 2020
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First submittedMarch 14, 2020
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Question or Term
That US body the defining powers of which are that it is the final court of appeal for federal and state supreme court cases, rules on the constitutionality of federal and state law and actions of federal and state executives, interprets the Constitution, and is subject to no higher authority
Supreme Court
That type of funding of parties the benefits of which are that it could; end parties' dependence on wealthy donors, businesses, and unions, increase transparency, equalise party resources, limit spending, and enable parties to shift focus towards the concerns of the electorate
State Funding
Those the aims and functions of which are to accentuate and extol certain policies, aspects of ideology, or party 'greats' (Thatcherites), to widen voter appeal and diversity by reflecting demographic, religious, or ideological groups within the party, to challenge the party establishment, and to support and encourage those of a similar mindset
Party Factions
That approach to comparative politics which when used to compare executives mostly concerns personal popularity and attributes of the premier and senior executive officials
Rational Approach
That approach to comparative politics which in a wider sense focuses on legislatures, executives, judiciaries, constitutions, class structures, electoral systems, political parties, pressure groups, the media, etc.
Structural Approach
Those the benefit of which are that they provide and propagate new ideas and policies while also helping to keep member and voters within the party (who otherwise might leave) by acting as a potential future leadership
Party Factions
That action undertaken by pressure groups within Congress and Parliament that when undertaken in the former usually involves both chambers and more importantly, constituents, though when undertaken in the latter is increasingly aimed at the less whipped upper house which has less party loyalty
That the strengths of which are that it initiates all money bills, draws up articles of impeachment, has powerful standing committees, and has strong constituency links due to the two-year election cycle
House of Representatives
The location of sovereignty in the US and UK respectively
Constitution and Parliament
Those types of chamber the move from one to the other is seen as a promotion in the US but as a retirement of political failure in the UK
Lower House and Upper House
Question or Term
That the basis for which in the US is the expectations, fears, and culture of the country in the 18th century, shaped by beliefs in liberty, individualism, equality, representative democracy, limited government, states' rights, and the rule of law
The different types of sovereignty and emphasised by the US and UK respectively, the former in the form of initiatives, primaries, and very regular elections, and the latter in the form of an appointed upper house, unelected head of government and no popular candidate selection
Popular and Parliamentary
Those which in the US are differentiated from those in the UK in that they are entrenched in the Constitution and Bill of Rights as well as some later amendments
Civil Rights
That cultural background and principle Parliament is most a reflection of
That court which in the UK lacks the fundamental ability to overrule Parliament or strike down Acts of Parliament unlike its US counterpart
Supreme Court
That increasingly asserted power of the UK courts that has seen many pressure groups start to more heavily lobby the judiciary
Judicial Review
That which in the US have not always been effectively protected by constitutional provisions, laws, amendments, and rulings as such measures have not always been implemented effectively (i.e. not prosecuting Southern lynch mobs), have sometimes infringed on others' rights (affirmative action), or have not gone far enough
Civil Rights
That type of party system which exists in the US and UK at the regional level such as in states (i.e. Wyoming having not had a Democratic Senator since 1977) and constituencies (i.e. East Devon (and its predecessors) having been held by the Conservatives since 1835)
Dominant Party System
That body that changed with the extension of the franchise in that it lost much of its power and hereditary nature under the 1911 and 1949 Parliament Acts and 1999 House of Lords Act, becoming subservient to the elected lower house
House of Lords
Those two parties that are differentiated in the fact that the former supports limited abortion, same-sex marriage, renewable energy, national healthcare, and limited government involvement in education, while opposing capital punishment, all the reverse of the position of the latter
Conservatives and Republicans
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