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Edexcel Politics 5. Conservatism and Liberalism

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Last updated: August 18, 2019
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First submittedAugust 17, 2019
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Question or Term
Answer
The four sometimes incompatible core values of conservatism in alphabetical order
Libertarianism, Paternalism, Pragmatism, and Tradition
Where individual success is based on work and ability rather than inheritance, &c.
Meritocracy
A nineteenth century development of liberalism closely associated with John Stuart Mill that advocated developmental individualism, negative freedom, and self help
Later classical liberalism
Those two significant later classical liberals besides John Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer, in alphabetical order
Jeremy Bentham and Samuel Smiles
That individual who might have proposed a system of voting in which those with a university education received two votes
John Stuart Mill (1806 - 1873)
Where elites decide what is best for non-elites, though by listening to the wants of said non-elites, perhaps via a consultation process
Soft Paternalism
The popular conservative belief that decisions should be based on evidence gained through experience rather than theory, emphasising what is, rather than what should be
Empiricism
That which conservatives believe should find its origin in a gradual, organic, and pragmatic development in response to humanity's needs rather than by contract which often results in idealism and normativism
The State
Those two ideologies which causes one-nation conservatism to further embrace unity, paternalism, welfarism, and a mixed economy after the First World War in alphabetical order
Fascism and Socialism
The theory of state legitimacy that individuals rationally consent whether explicitly or tacitly to surrender some freedoms to the authority of the state in exchange for social order and the protection of remaining rights, popularised by Thomas Hobbes
Social Contract Theory
Question or Term
Answer
That which conservatives believe the state must hold strongly, as the feasibility of individual rights in entirely dependent upon law and order, which can only be provided by a state with such an attribute
Authority
A new right conservative and libertarian, who advocated a minarchist state which would be as small as possible, only enforcing laws, and allowing people to live generally how they wish
Robert Nozick (1938 - 2002)
The individual who viewed humans as fallible and imperfect, but also benign and benevolent, when framed by routine, familiarity, and religious principles
Michael Oakeshott (1901 - 1990)
A libertarian principle akin to the 'night-watchman state' that only exceeds anarchism in that it seeks a government that provides citizens with a military, police force, and courts, though nothing more
Minarchism
The belief of which conservatives are sceptical, that society must always advance to a superior future condition
Progressivism
A theory linked to the writings of John Locke that mankind is inherently rational and therefore capable of developing a state based on reason that reflects mankind's needs
Mechanistic Theory
The individual who viewed humans as naturally individualistic, competitive, and selfish, though also coldly rational, allowing the potential for such issues to be mitigated
Thomas Hobbes (1588 - 1679)
The classical liberal idea that humans are naturally interested in their own advancement and happiness, though prevented from being outright selfish due to rationalism
Egotistical Individualism
That branch of liberalism which developed against a background of worsening conditions and thus decreased freedoms for the poorest, believed to be as a result of free-market capitalism
Modern liberalism
That which is closely associated with liberalism due to liberalism's emphasis on property as a representation of the individual in society, leading to a belief in free market trade and the 'trickle down' of wealth as being natural and rational
Capitalism
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