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Edexcel Politics 9. US Politics: Democracy and Participation

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Last updated: February 26, 2020
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First submittedFebruary 10, 2020
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Question or Term
Answer
That the most 'visible' parts of which are opinion polls, media interviews and televised debates, the latter being criticised for not including much serious policy debate, partly due to the large number of candidates as occurred with the Republican debates in 2016
Invisible Primary
That body which is especially conducive to pressure group activity as committees are autonomous, party discipline is weak, and power is decentralised providing many access point
Congress
A 25 person declining Congressional Caucus comprising the core of the conservative faction in the Democratic Party, often more conservative on issues such as gun-control and religion, supporting bipartisanship
Blue Dog Coalition
Presidential primaries in which delegates are awarded to the candidates in proportion to the votes they get above a certain threshold, used in all Democrat and most Republican primaries
Proportional Primaries
That strategy for choosing a vice-presidential candidate of which alternative strategies are; potential in government, based on executive and legislative experience such as George W. Bush choosing Dick Cheney, or party-unity in the form of choosing their former rival such as Reagan choosing George H. W. Bush
Balanced Ticket
The largest federation of unions (55) in the USA representing more than 12 million individuals, campaigning for progressive policies in the form of lobbying and get-out-the-vote campaigns, closely associated with civil rights and the Democratic Party
American Federation of Labour and Congress of Industrial Organisations
That group the types of which are; business/trade groups, labour unions and agricultural groups, professional groups, and intergovernmental groups, the last of which lobbies one level of government on behalf of another such as the National Governor's Conference
Sectional Groups
The religious group which has increasingly wavered towards the Republicans, having once strongly supported the Democrats
Catholics
Those which are often less contested under an incumbent president except where the president is unpopular within the party in which case they may be more contested as occurred with George H. W. Bush, much damaging him in the subsequent election
Primaries
That body the vote of which is announced by votes being sent to the Vice President who then counts and announces them before Congress unless there is no absolute majority in which case the House and Senate elect the President and Vice President respectively on an absolute majority as last occurred in 1824
Electoral College
Question or Term
Answer
The two states that do not given all their electoral college voters to the winner of the popular vote, alphabetically
Maine and Nebraska
That article of the Constitution which clarified presidential nominations by stating that States will appoint electors proportionate in number to each State's Senators and Representatives, whom will meet and cast their ballot to determine the State's nominee
Article II
Those which function differently in the USA compared to the UK as lobbying is aimed mostly at Congress though also notably at the judiciary more than in the UK
Pressure Groups
That in primaries which is most determined by demographics (age, education, etc.), the type of primary, how competitive the race is, and whether the nomination has already been decided by prior primaries in other states
Turnout
Those that have taken the form of roundtable discussions, direct audience questions, press questions, and moderated debates
Televised Presidential Debates
Those two individuals the televised presidential debate between whom was the only one to have a clear impact, thanks largely to the questions posed to the audience in the challenger's closing statement, alphabetically
President Carter and Governor Reagan
Federal money given to presidential candidates who met certain criteria and agreed to certain limitations, being the main source of funding from 1976 to 2008, since when no major candidate has signed up
Matching Funds
The percentage of liberals (26% of all voters) who voted Demcoratic in 2016
84%
A primary in which any registered voter can vote in either party's primary, used in 11 states, such as Georgia and Vermont, criticised for allowing cross-over voting
Open Primary
The individual considered by all impartial measures and marginally by voters as the winner of the three 2016 televised presidential debates
Hillary Clinton
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