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Ethnic and Muslim Nationalism coupled with the Fall of the USSR, as well as the desire to restore cultural associations with Afghanistan and Iran.
Gained independence from the British Empire after the Zürich and London Agreement. Became a point of contention between the UK, Greece, and Turkey, and remains so today.
After two decades of various revolutions and civil wars, this nation eventually gained independence under the leadership of José Antonio Páez. Some estimate a third of the nation was lost as a result of these wars.
After a bloody decade of war in Yugoslavia, a civil campaign against fraudulent president Slobodan Milošević, and a Montenegrin referendum for separation, this country became independent for the first time since the First World War.
In 2008, this country's assembly unilaterally declared independence from the above country. Although they've had de-facto independence since then, this nation is still not recognized by many other countries.
Originally declared independence in 1927 due to Soviet support in the Republic of China. During a period of unrest followed by the Second Sino-Japanese War, this nation aligned with its political rivals to fight off the larger threat. Led by Mao after the war, the country fought a harsh civil war in which it gained control of the entire mainland area.
This country was originally a British colony, but slowly gained autonomy throughout the first half of the 20th century. After the Statute of Westminster and the British loss in the Pacific in WWII, this country finally became independent.
After the Mexican War of Independence, the Guatemalan government declared the independence of all Central America. This confederacy collapsed pretty quickly due to a lack of national unity and communication difficulties, so the local government took charge.
In 1947, the Panglong Conference was held to guarantee the independence of this nation. General Bogyoke Aung San and the ethnic leaders in the nation negotiated the agreement.
Orginally founded in 1291 as a union between Cantons, would later become more centralized during and after the Napoleonic Wars.
A movement formed in this nation in the 1960's due to other African nations demanding independence, led by Dr. Manuel Pinto da Costa. After overthrowing the Portuguese dictatorship and undergoing a transitional period, the country finally gained independence in 1975.
São Tomé and Príncipe
A liberation movement in this country was founded in 1958 by intellectuals and students. After an armed struggle, Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie dissolved the nation's parliament and annexed the territory. In a 1993 UN-supervised referendum, the nation voted overwhelmingly for independence.
In 1989, the USSR declared the occupation of the Baltic States unlawful. In 1990, this country declared independence. It took until 1991 for full independence to be gained. Russia withdrew its military from the country in 1994.
This country experienced intermittent independence, in the 20's, but was controlled under France until the fall of France in WWII when the partially-autonomous republic took full control of the nation.
The first independence revolutions in Latin America began in this country in 1809. Eventually revolutions would be led by Antonio José de Sucre and Simón Bolívar and they would gain independence in 1825.
Founded by freed American slaves sent to Africa by the American Colonization Society.
In the 1960's, as the struggling UK established Legislative Councils in this country. A constitution was drawn in 1970, which was redrafted in 1974 to remove British control over the nation. The country finally gained full independence in 1978 under their first prime minister, Sir Peter Kenilorea.
Desire from most the population in the area for sovereignty culminated in a referendum for independence. Though they voted independence, pro-Indonesian forces violently took control of the nation. A UN peacekeeping force restored order to the country and the first elections were held in 2001.
Initially declared independence in 1811, overthrowing the Spanish administration and installing dictator José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia (El Supremo). What followed would be a series of dictatorships, juntas, and unstable governments until 1992.
A referendum held in 1973 for four French colonial islands' independences resulted in three of them voting in favor of independence, which would become this country. Though the plan was to become fully independent in 1978, the parliament declared independence in 1975.
Due to ethnic tensions and the collapse of the Soviet Union, a large amount of people in this nation, initially led by president Askar Akayev, wished to become a sovereign country, and did so in 1991.
After spending centuries under colonial rule by the Portuguese, residents of this country formed a political party for the independence of themselves and another Portuguese colony in 1956. In 1960, the party began an armed rebellion, which would eventually result in independence in 1975.
Led to independence from France in 1960 by Hubert Maga. Multiple coups and regime changes have occured since, though the most recent elections are considered fair and free.
Brought about by enlightenment ideologies and other revolutions, the May Revolution in 1810 toppled the viceroyalty in this nation. It took decades more of civil wars and power changes before the modern version of this country would be established towards the end of the 19th century.
Groups of warring kingdoms existed here since the decline of the Yuan Dynasty, until Ngawang Namgyal the Bearded Lama unified the area under kingdom around 1600 AD. In the 1870's, the country had a civil war and remained divided until 1885 when reunified by Ugyen Wangchuck, the first king of the modern country.
Originally a collection of small kingdoms, this country existed in many forms: as a kingdom, a fascist regime, and a jointly-occupied republic. In 1990, the nation reunified and has been ever since.
After World War I, many residents of this country desired to have a voice in their government. The country gained autonomy after the West Indies Federation collapsed in 1962, and gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1978.
The British colony was majorly affected by the Great Depression, and from the crisis sprang many movements for self-governance and nationalism. Led by Norman Manley, the nation gained independence in 1962 after leaving the West-Indies Federation.