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After World War II, France was unable to maintain its huge empire. This, paired with the growing popular demand for self government led to increased autonomy and eventual independence. This country's first president was Sylvanus Olympio.
This country's national identity formed around 750 AD becoming a naval power around the ninth century, before eventually being subjugated by the Seljuk Empire. Between subjugation by Portugal, Persia, and the UK, this nation has been a major regional naval power. The nation gained total independence in 1967.
In 1918, a group of anarchists known as the black army attempted to form a stateless anarchy in the region whilst fighting off the White army, though it was defeated by Trotsky's Red Army in 1921. They remained part of the Soviet Union until 1991 when union collapsed.
In 872, Harald Fairhair unified the Viking clans in the region after the Battle of Hafrsfjord, with him as the first king (disputed). this country was in a union with Denmark from 1388 until 1814, when the Napoleonic wars resulted in it being ceded to Sweden. In 1905, Christian Michelsen brought about the peaceful separation of the two countries and became this one's first prime minister.
Initially a group of small kingdoms, the country unified under a high king starting in the 7th century. England and Scotland attempted to assert power in the region, but this built native nationalism instead. The country entered a union with the UK, but through a guerrilla war, they were freed as an independent republic.
Discontent with British colonial rule in the region led to the Mau Mau uprising, in which indigenous members of the country fought a bloody but unsuccessful war. The harsh treatment of insurgents by the British led to more support for independence, which resulted in independence in 1964.
Part of the British Raj up until 1947, this nation was partitioned from India and Burma (Now Myanmar) into a noncontiguous Pakistan. When the prime minister-elect Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was prevented from taking office, he led a pro-independence movement resulting in a bloody war with Pakistan. The country was officially recognized by Pakistan in 1974.
The area was brought into the Byzantine Empire in the 13th century, and traded hands with Serbia and Italy until 1272, when this Kingdom was founded. The Ottoman Empire conquered the kingdom in the 15th century. upset with the subjugation by the Ottomans, the nation declared independence as a republic in 1912.
The Spanish colony desired independence in order to increase human development in the nation at a faster rate than what Spain had been doing. Francisco Macías Nguema travelled to New York and delivered a series of speeches to the UN that contributed to Spain eventually granting independence to the country in 1968.
The British colony, then called Nyasaland, had been gaining autonomy since the 1940's, desired independence from the motherland as most colonies did. They gained independence peacefully in 1964, with Hastings Banda as their first Prime Minister.
This country had existed under another empire since around 1400, under the Ottoman Empire, then Austria-Hungary, and then Yugoslavia. Due to ethnic tensions and a lack of representation, this country declared independence and held a referendum in 1992, and would fight wars with Yugoslavian nations until 1994.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
After the liberation of this peninsula from Japan at the end of World War II, rising tensions with the United States and the Soviet Union led to a partitioning of the country into two in 1948. This one was led by US-backed politicians who pushed an authoritarian anti-communist ideology. War between the two halves was declared soon after.
Formerly a British colony, this country was originally planned to be part of South Africa, but petitioned for self government instead. It became independent in 1966.
One could argue that this country existed since before 1000BC, though the modern version of it began in 1979 in an Islamic Revolution in which the shah was deposed and a theocratic constitution was adopted.
This country was a French African colony. After WWII, it entered the French Union which gave it more autonomy and the first political parties were formed. The country gained independence under Hamani Diori in1960.
Similar to the above, this country was a French colony that joined the French Union. The country gained independence in 1960 under Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who maintained a strong relationship with France.
This country was part of the Soviet Union until 1989 when the popular front organized a mass demonstration known as the Grand National assembly, pressuring nationalist laws, which culminated in 1990 when the country declared sovereignty, which was solidified when the USSR collapsed in 1991.
This island nation was uninhabited until the 18th century. The British Empire took control of this country and Mauritius in 1810. It was granted independence as a republic in 1976, and it joined the commonwealth.
A large Spanish Caribbean colony that remained loyal as most other Spanish colonies rebelled. Independence wars began in the 1860's, but they were ultimately unsuccessful. After the Spanish-American War, this country became a protectorate of the US and gained full independence in 1902.
This large British colony had been gaining autonomy and been promised independence just before WWII, but the war postponed this. Mohandas Gandhi and others led peaceful demonstrations that gained lots of popular support, and the colony was granted independence and partitioned from Pakistan.
The UK was unable to maintain its vast colonial empire after WWII, leading to many colonies gaining independence. This island colony had a series of riots in 1968, and soon after declared independence, its first president being Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam.
Originally founded after the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and led by Sun-Yat Sen, this country quickly fell into chaos, with frequent regime changes and fighting amongst warlords. After WWII, the People's Republic of China fought over this country's mainland, and today the government lives in exile on the island of Formosa.
This nation was an Australian colony on the world's second-largest island. It gained independence in 1975 and entered the British Commonwealth.
Papua New Guinea
This Spanish American colony was the first of its kind to call for independence. Led by Antonio José de Sucre and others, this country gained independence in 1822 and joined Gran Colombia, but it separated in 1830.
This British Colony turned South African Mandate was the site of the South African Border War, in which nationalists fought for proper representation and self determination. The UN declared South African occupation of this country illegal in 1969, and full independence would be gained in 1989.
This ancient country is an island-dwelling empire founded around 660 BC, though it would enter many periods of change and reform. In 1615, the state reunified for the last time, though it changed once more after WWII, when its constitution was rewritten to form a democratic constitutional monarchy.
Residents of this former Soviet State were unhappy with the USSR's treatment of the republic. The government tried to erase the population's identity, let it take the brunt of damage in WWII, and did little to help it when Chernobyl fallout devastated the countryside. Residents were happy to declare independence when the Union collapsed in 1991.
This French African colony gained autonomy after WWII as similar countries did. In 1960, the country gained independence, with its first president being Léon M'ba.