Biology 100 final

I created this quiz to help me prepare for a college exam, but feel free to take it and enjoy!
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Last updated: December 4, 2017
First submittedNovember 27, 2017
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Definition
Term
2. Viruses from other animals spread to humans
contact between species
3. viruses spread from isolated human population to larger human population
spread
harvest the energy from sunlight but gets their carbon atoms from organic molecules
chemoautotrophs
rod shaped prokaryotic bacteria, may also be threadlike, or filaments
bacilli
the longer and more flexible spiral prokaryotic bacteria
spirochetes
spherical prokaryotic cells , sometimes occur in chains that are called steptococci
cocci
help prokaryotes move in their environment; protein tails that rotate like a propeller
Flagella
the second stage of binary division, the cell is elongated and the copies are moved
elongated
an infectious particle consisting of a little bit of nucleic acid
virus
hairlike projections that enable prokaryotes to stick to their substrate or surface or each other
fimbriae
DNA or RNA can be present in animal viruses, but mist plant viruses are made up of _____.
RNA
3 processes that contribute to viral disease
bleh
more complex cell walls containing less peptidoglycan and protective outer membrane- more likely to cause disease, turns pink under the microscope
Gram- negative
1. RNA viruses ______ rapidly.
Mutation
proteins secreted by bacteria cells, some of the most powerful toxins
exotoxins
A set of defenses that is activated only after exposure to specific antigens
Adaptive/ Acquired immunity
process of dividing the prokaryote in half
binary fission
white blood cells that are responsible for the production of antibodies
lymphocytes
composed of a harmless varriant or part of a disease cause microbe, such as inactivated bacterial toxin
vaccine
spiral prokaryote shaped like a corkscrew, rigid and short spirals
spirilla
when the bacteria becomes resistant to the antibiotics
antibiotic resistance
thrive in very salty places
extreme halophiles
simpler cell walls containing a thick layer of peptidoglycan, turns purple under the microscope
gram-positive
covers the cell wall of many prokaryotes, made up of a sticky layer of protein
capsule
any molecule that causes an adaptive immune response
antigen
obtain energy from sunlight, but get their carbon atoms from organic molecules
photoheterotrophs
components of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, released when the cell dies or is digested by a defensive cell
endotoxins
occurs upon the first exposure to the antigen, slower
primary immune response
the first stage of binary fission, the chromosome is duplicated and the copies are seperated
duplication
Definition
Term
obtain energy from sunlight and use carbon dioxide for carbon
photoautotrophs
the third stage of binary fission, the cell is divided into two daughter cells
division
immune proteins produced when the immune system detects an antigen
antibodies
a thick protective coat that can dehydrate and is tolerant of extreme and harsh conditions
endospores
the use of organisms to remove pollutants from the soild, air or water
bioremediation
harnesses the energy stored in chemicals- provides energy to prokaryotes
chemotrophs
thrive in very hot water, such as geysers and acid pools
extreme thermophiles
live in anaerobic (no oxygen) enviroments and give off methane as a water product from the digestive tracts of cattle and deer
methanogens
the secondary exposure to the antigen, faster than the primary
secondary immune response
how adaptive immunity can be obtained by the administration of a vaccine
vaccination
possible explanation for an observation
Hypothesis
potential outcome of an experiment based on hypothesis
prediction
provide energy and come in different forms
sugars
single/simple sugar
monosaccharides
many sugars bonded together
polysaccharides
fats
lipids
phospholipids
steroids
provide energy, insulation, form plasma membrane, form hormones
fats
made up of amino acids,, building blocks
proteins
speed up chemical reactions
enztmes
form structuarl parts of the cell
proteins
bacteria and archaea, not complex
prokaryote
everything thats not a prokaryote, more complex
eukaryote
only present in bacteria and plant cells
cell wall
only present in plants
chloroplast
not present in bacteria
nucleus
present in all cells
cell membrane
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