Sociology 101- final study guide

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Last updated: December 7, 2016
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The patterns and materials of thinking and behaving
Conflicting expectations within a single role
Role strain
The degree to which those in a social system identify with it and feel bound to support it, willingness to cooperate to survive and prosper
Social Cohesion
Close knit, don't go outside the group -type of social capital
Bonding social capital
The ties between groups. Your network of people and resources- type of social capital
Bridging social capital
5 key characteristics of Mcdonaldization
Minimizing the time taken on tasks
Being able to know what you're going to get
The same measurements and weights
Nonhuman technology
Monitoring people, organization of restaurant
Multiple Capitals
Includes factories, schools, roads, community centers and habitat restoration. Al contribute building other capitals for communities.
Built capital
Includes values, beliefs and attitudes that are passes along to us. Also "embodied" capital such as an accent.
Cultural capital
The skills and abilities of each individual within a community
Human capital
Consists of money used for investment rather than for consumption
Financial capital
The landscape, air water, soil and biodiversity
Natural capital
The ability of a group to influence the distribution of resources within a small unit, including helping to determine what resources are available and who is eligible to receive them
Political capital
Includes the networks, norms of reciprocity and manual trust that exist among and within a group and communities
Social capital
Conflicted expectations between two or more statuses/roles
Role Conflict
Theory: Multiple social identities combine to modify a person's status in society. Not all identities are equally influential. There is a "piece of the oppressor in all of us"
Intersections Theory
The top 1/5th of the U.S population had a household income over what (aprox)?
Established or standardized patterns of rule-governed behavior
Social institutions
Purposes for Incarceration
People are scared to go to jail, so they don't commit a crime
Rehabilitate the prisoners
Protect the citizens
Pay for what they've done
Reasons for high incarceration rates in the U.S.
Longer sentencing
Mandatory minimum sentencing
Incarceration for "public" order crimes
Careful documentation
The direct or connotative meaning of what's said
Expression given
What could be implied from the given statement
Expression given off
Focuses on individuals and their interactions
Micro level
Focuses on social structures, problems and inter relationships
Macro level
Movement between different positions within social stratification
Social mobility
People's capacity to make decisions
Human agency
A quality of mind that involves shifting or combining perspectives in order to develop useful ideas about what is going on in the world
Sociological imagination
When things become popular before certain things are set in place. ex. cars before roads
Cultural lag
A level or layer of reality. Constrains and coerces us in everyday life
The Social
The process of an individual or group learning norms and customs of a society through social interaction
What all cultures have in common. ex: Dancing, body decoration, rights of passage, incest taboo
Cultural universals
Laws, deliberately restrict minorities
Institutional discrimination
The chances people have to get ahead (opportunities)
Life chances
Formulized behaviors or actions the group members regularly engage in
The evaluation of cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one culture
Expected behaviors
Social roles
Relations between groups in regard to the hierarchal organization of status into the roles regulating behavior
Social Structures
When individuals in a group who act together without any planned action
Heard behavior
Harm from trying to be efficient
Irrationality of rationality
One does not always cause the other
"Correlation is not causation"
Longing for something in the past
Nostalgia trap
Set of rules about how to be a good man
The man box
The process of learning the social expectations and attitudes associated with one's sex
Gender socialization
Decision-making by a group, especially characterized by uncritical acceptance or conformity to a perceived majority view
Group think
Socio-economic layering of society's members, according to property, power and prestige
Social stratification
The causes and consequences of social behavior. Awareness of the patterns in how characteristics and resources are distributed
Unintended functions
Latent functions
Apparent/intended functions
Manifest functions
Ideas about the world and how it works
Social construction
Theory: If people get together and define it is real, then it is and it has consequences
The W.I. Thomas theory
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