Respiratory physiology definitions

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Last updated: June 4, 2016
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First submittedJune 4, 2016
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Definition
Answer
amount of air moved in or out of the lungs per minute
total ventilation
volume of air that is inhaled but does not take part in the gas exchange, either because it remains in conducting airways or reaches alveoli that are not perfused/ poorly perfused.
respiratory dead space
volume of gas per unit time that reaches the alveoli. tidal volume-dead space.
alveolar ventilation
hypothetical pressure of a particular gas if it alone occupied the volume of the mixture at constant temperature
partial pressure
lung volume representing normal volume of air displaced between normal inhalation and exhalation when extra effort is not applied.
tidal volume
maximum amount of air a person can expel from their lungs after maximum inhalation
vital capacity
volume of air present in the lungs at the end of passive expiration.
functional residual capacity
pressure within the pleural cavity
intrapleural pressure
measure of the lung's ability to stretch and expand
pulmonary compliance
Definition
Answer
surface-active lipoprotein complex formed by type II pneumocytes that reduces surface tension.
surfactant
collapse or closure of a lung
atelectasis
opposition to flow caused by forces of friction in respiratory tract
airways resistance
a person's maximum speed of expiration
peak expiratory flow
measure of the transfer of gas from air in the lung into erythrocytes in lung blood vessels
diffusing capacity
haemoglobin's affinity for oxygen is inversely related to both acidity and CO2 concentration
Bohr effect
when the alveoli are perfused as normal, but ventilation fails to supply the perfused region
pulmonary shunt
breakdown of lung tissue from inflammatory response to long-term exposure to irritants
emphysema
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